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Atopic dermatitis in children: symptoms and treatment, photo

Under atopic dermatitis, otherwise called neurodermatitis, should be understood an allergic skin reaction caused by a genetic disorder of the immune response.

An important role in the development of atopic dermatitis in children is played by the insufficiently developed function of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the correction of the genetics and functionality of the gastrointestinal tract that should be considered for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

Content

Causes of atopic dermatitis in a child

Atopic dermatitis in children, photo

Atopic dermatitis in children, photo

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children are provoked by an inadequate immune response to foreign proteins against the background of a genetic predisposition (neurodermatitis or other allergic reactions in parents). The reason for this may be:

  • excessive consumption of conditionally allergic products by the pregnant woman (cocoa, citrus, eggs, nuts, etc.) and the appearance of specific antibodies in the fetus;
  • GIT immaturity - undigested protein fragments, which form sensitization, enter the blood;
  • hypersensitivity of the skin and respiratory mucosa - a dry climate causes dry skin and mucous membranes, which provokes an increase in its sensitivity to allergens in the air, children's creams, clothes (see photo).

Once formed, the antibodies cause exacerbations of the disease even without direct contact with the sensitizing substance or product.

Stages of development of the disease

Atopic dermatitis in an infant occurs only from 2 months. The following disease stages are determined by age criterion and specificity of clinical manifestations:

  • Stage 1 - infant neurodermatitis - is observed up to 2 years, characterized by pronounced inflammation, oozing;
  • Stage 2 - children's atopy - is fixed until puberty, papules form against the background of increasing dryness of the skin;
  • Stage 3 - juvenile neurodermatitis - manifestations appear for the first time in adolescents, and exacerbations may haunt a person and in adulthood, the inflammatory reaction replaces signs of lichenification and vascular skin disorders.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children, photo

1-stage-atopic-dermatitis

Tactics of treatment of atopic dermatitis in children depends on its symptoms and stage. At different ages, atopic dermatitis gives a characteristic clinical picture.

Stage 1

Atopic dermatitis in the initial stage is manifested by severe inflammation of the skin. Typical localization - skin folds (diaper rash), forehead and baby cheeks.

This age period is characterized by bright hyperemia, edema and rapidly forming pockets of soak, which are then covered with milk scabs.

Inflammation often spreads to the scalp and neck. Severe itching can cause scratching and suppuration of cracks. The baby's sleep is disturbed, and the slightest discomfort causes anxiety. Often, infant neurodermatitis is accompanied by thrush in the mouth.

Stage 2

In a child under 10 years old, foci of neurodermatitis are more often located in the skin folds behind the ears, on the tender skin of the flexor surface of the wrist and ankle, on the neck under the nape.

photo of the second stage of dermatitis

photo of the second stage of dermatitis

At the same time, pronounced dryness of the skin, expressed by scaling, and impaired pigmentation (dark and light areas of the skin) come to the fore.

Atopic face in a child: grayish dull skin, pigmented spots around the eyes, additional fold of the lower eyelid. During this period, the child’s condition may worsen with severe allergic reactions - angioedema, bronchial asthma, urticaria.

Stage 3

In adolescence, pathological changes in the skin have signs of lichenisation - focal thickening of the skin with pronounced peeling, enhanced skin pattern.

Mostly modified areas are located on the face and neck, upper extremities. In severe cases, skin lesions of the trunk are recorded.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

Only an allergist after careful examination of anamnesis (identifying allergic reactions in parents), conducting special allergy tests and testing a child's blood for antibodies can make an accurate diagnosis and differentiate neurodermatitis from psoriasis, eczema and other skin diseases.

Although atopic dermatitis is a chronic pathology, often with appropriate therapy, its symptoms disappear by the time the body matures. However, sometimes the disease is manifested by exacerbations and in adulthood.

The treatment regimen for atopic dermatitis includes the elimination of allergens, diet and a comprehensive medication.

Drug therapy

Conducted courses lasting 1-1.5 months and includes the use of the following tools:

  • antihistamines;
  • vitamins and zinc preparations;
  • Immune suppressors that suppress the hyperactivity of immune cells;
  • antibiotics (for acceding infection);
  • soothing;
  • gastrointestinal drugs (normalization of the activity of the stomach, intestines, liver);
  • corticosteroids (in severe cases, with frequent exacerbations).

Drug treatment is prescribed by a qualified allergist dermatologist, taking into account the characteristics of the disease and the patient's condition.

Outdoor facilities

Their application aims to minimize the pathological manifestations of the skin:

  • anti-inflammatory talkers;
  • drying agents and antiseptics - pointwise with soaking at 1 stage;
  • moisturizing - with severe dryness of the skin on stage 2 of the disease;
  • External corticosteroids - hormonal cream for atopic dermatitis, as well as the internal use of corticosteroids, it is advisable only with the ineffectiveness of other drugs in the acute phase and lasts no more than 1 week.

Local use of alcohol-containing liquids is strictly prohibited.

Physiotherapy

Especially effective in atopic dermatitis phototherapy. Ultraviolet irradiation increases the effectiveness of Psoralen (PUVA-therapy).

Also, bioresonance treatment is often prescribed, however, studies of the effectiveness of this method in the treatment of neurodermatitis have not been conducted.

Diet for atopic dermatitis in children

atopic atopic dermatitis Diet to year

During this period, babies can be given fruit purees and juices from pears, apples, currants. Sausages, potatoes, and various types of cabbage are safe among vegetables. During the feeding, only one new product should be introduced into the diet each week.

It is desirable to refuse cow's milk, giving preference to breastfeeding and special infant formulas that correspond to the age of the child. From drinks you can give clean water, compotes and weakly brewed tea.

Diet after a year

The diet menu for atopic dermatitis at this age can be made more diverse by including various vegetable mashed soups, boiled lean meat (rabbit, turkey, veal), pumpkin, cucumbers, greens, rice, oatmeal, buckwheat, buckwheat.

Choosing fruits is best done with your doctor, since many of them are potential allergens. Vegetables must be processed thermally - they can be cooked, baked in the oven, steamed.

Dairy products should be removed from the diet with the exception of a small amount of cottage cheese, homemade yogurt and yogurt. The menu should not be sausages and sausages, canned eggs, fatty broths and fried foods, smoked meats, honey, bright fruit (red apples, strawberries, citrus). After conducting a study on the main allergen menu can be significantly expanded.

Dietary restrictions apply not only to children, but also to the mother during the breastfeeding period. In this case, all foods that increase the content of histamine in the blood are excluded from the diet:

  • smoked meats
  • nuts,
  • chocolate,
  • pickles,
  • eggs,
  • honey,
  • vinegar,
  • yeast,
  • products with chemical dyes and preservatives.

In the menu for atopic dermatitis should prevail:

  • green apples
  • cabbage and zucchini,
  • lean meat,
  • buckwheat, pearl barley and corn grits.

Possible complications

Along with a cosmetic defect, atopic dermatitis may be complicated by:

  1. Long-term non-healing cracks;
  2. Bacterial, fungal or viral infections: streptoderma, pyoderma, cutaneous candidiasis (including lichen-colored lichen), herpes;
  3. Candidiasis of the oral cavity (in infants);
  4. Atopic march in 5-7 years - severe allergic pathologies - asthma , allergic rhinitis in a child, etc.

Recommendations to parents

  • Observe the optimum air mode in the children's room - + 23 ° C, 60% humidity and more.
  • The exclusion of allergenic things from the situation - carpets, feather pillows.
  • Removing mold in the bathroom (mold is an aggressive allergen).
  • It is necessary to have no pets: cats / dogs, birds, fish (fish food is also allergic).
  • Revision of washing powder, soap and detergents to avoid sensitization.
  • Baby clothes are only cotton.
  • Hypoallergenic child care products - lanolin or baby soap without chemical flavors, neutral moisturizing care products.
  • Preservation of psychological peace of the child, the exclusion of scratching.
  • Vaccination only healthy baby.
  • Treatment of helminthiasis and chronic tonsillitis.
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