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Asthma: types, causes, symptoms and treatment, help with an attack

Diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue, which occur with inflammation and narrowing of the bronchi - are accompanied by asthma (suffocation).

The epithelium lining the bronchial tree is very sensitive to inhaled substances. They irritate the bronchi, causing hypersecretion and swelling, which prevents air from entering the lungs. Reflex bronchospasm further restricts respiratory function.


Asthma: what is it?

Normal bronchi and asthma attacks

Asthma is a disease of the bronchial structures of a non-infectious nature, characterized by attacks of choking and broncho-obstructive syndrome. The disease is characterized by chronic course, and in about a third of cases it is hereditary.

If asthma is diagnosed in childhood - there is a chance to get rid of it. In adults, the disease is much more complicated. The deterioration of the environment leads to an increase in morbidity. The rate among children reaches 10%, and in adults 6%.

Types of Asthma

There are three main types of the disease, accompanied by an asthmatic condition. They are as follows:

Bronchial asthma is a chronic lesion of the bronchial mucosa with the development of hypersensitivity to inhaled (trigger) substances. Manifested periodic attacks of suffocation. Unlike bronchitis, the infection plays a triggering role, and the leading cause of asthma is genetic predisposition.

Drug asthma - occurs as a side effect on the intake of certain medication. There are two mechanisms - either the drug causes allergies, which leads to the disease or the side effect of the medication causes a spasm of the bronchioles and an attack of suffocation.

Cardiac asthma - occurs as a result of pulmonary edema in heart failure. The mechanism is a decrease in the contractile function of the myocardium or an increase in pressure in the pulmonary system.

The most common cause of the disease is bronchial pathology.

Causes of Asthma

The main causes of asthma are unknown, but it is believed that this is a combination of two factors: genetic and environmental influences. There are other risk factors that can trigger the onset of the disease. These include:

  1. Constant contact with substances that cause allergic reactions is animal hair, dust, mold;
  2. Taking certain medications (side effects of beta blockers that cause bronchospasm);
  3. Respiratory and viral infections;
  4. Passive smoking;
  5. Ecological situation;
  6. Work in rooms with dirty air, with chemicals, flour;
  7. Products containing sulfates;
  8. Physical exercise;
  9. Constant stress and nervousness;
  10. Sharp weather changes;
  11. Hereditary factor.

Patients with the manifestation of all allergic reactions need to contact an allergist to establish the exact causes.

Symptoms and signs of asthma, photo

Symptoms of asthma, photo

Symptoms of asthma, photo

Since asthma is heart, bronchial or drug, the symptoms vary. However, the first signs of asthma are the same - severe dry cough and shortness of breath.

In allergic asthma, the symptoms are as follows:

  • A cough appears;
  • Whistling occurs when breathing;
  • A person breathes in and out with a frequency of more than 16 / minute;
  • In the chest there are painful sensations;
  • These signs are evident when the patient contacts the allergen.

The following symptoms are characteristic of cardiac asthma :

  • Attacks of coughing and choking occurs at night in a dream;
  • In a horizontal position, breathing becomes difficult, so a person assumes a half-sitting position;
  • There may be other signs characteristic of heart failure (edema, difficulty breathing);
  • With physical exertion, shortness of breath occurs, the abdomen increases, the skin around the nose and lips takes on a bluish tinge.
Inhaler during an attack, photo 2

Inhaler during an attack, photo 2

Symptoms of bronchial asthma are pronounced:

  • Dry, strong cough;
  • Shortness of breath, which becomes stronger when an attack occurs;
  • Seizures are characterized by strong cough and shortness of breath, followed by abundant sputum;
  • Constriction and heaviness in the chest;
  • Attacks end abruptly, as they begin;
  • Exacerbations occur at night due to difficulty breathing in a horizontal position. As a result, the patient may choke with cough all night;
  • During breathing, characteristic whistles are heard.

If any symptoms are found, it is necessary to consult a specialist for a correct diagnosis and, if necessary, to begin treatment.

First aid for an attack of bronchial asthma

Asthma attacks are the main symptom of this disease. And relatives of the person with the disease should know what to do to relieve an attack of bronchial asthma. This condition is diagnosed in a patient according to the following manifestations:

Signs of an asthma attack

  1. A person assumes a position in which muscles are included in the respiratory process. To do this, he puts his feet shoulder-width apart, and rests his hands on the edge of the bed or chair.
  2. Inhalation is fast, and exhalation is long and painful, accompanied by coughing.
  3. During exhalation, a strong whistle is heard.
  4. The skin takes on a bluish tinge and becomes cool.
  5. The cough is strong and heavy.

What to do with an attack of bronchial asthma? - The algorithm of action is as follows:

  • Provide fresh air to the patient. It is better that he takes a sitting position, this will facilitate the discharge of sputum during coughing.
  • It is necessary to unbutton your clothes so that there is no pressure on the chest.
  • . The patient must give an inhaler .
  • It is necessary to remove allergens that can provoke an increase in the attack.
  • The patient needs to drink a sedative (coravolol, valerian). It is necessary to take bronchodilator aerosol preparations, which are in the asthmatic first aid kit.
  • If the situation is severe, then you should call an ambulance. With a moderate condition, you can contact your doctor.
  • In the absence of improvements, physicians resort to the infusion of steroid drugs.
  • The rules for assisting with an asthma attack must be known to the relatives and close people of the patient in order to provide help at the right time.

Asthma treatment

Unfortunately, to cure this disease is currently impossible. Throughout his life, a person with such a diagnosis must observe and follow the prescription of doctors.

Treatments for an asthma attack

Treatment of asthma in adults includes the elimination of attacks and the prevention of their occurrence again.

To do this, use:

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamine nature.
  2. Bronchodilator drugs that expand the bronchi to improve air flow. All medicines must be prescribed by a doctor.
  3. Respiratory gymnastics is also necessary, it helps to remove the acute inflammation of the bronchi.
  4. For the treatment of asthma and folk remedies. However, before this is to consult with your doctor.

To improve the condition in heart form, correction of cardiac diseases is necessary. Asthma is a chronic pathology, so therapy continues throughout life. Subject to medical advice, quality of life suffers only slightly.

Asthma: Complications and Prevention

If you do not treat asthma, complications arise, namely:

  • Pulmonary diseases: pneumonia, respiratory failure, pneumosclerosis , emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis.
  • Cardiac pathology - hypotension, heart attacks, heart failure, arrhythmia.
  • The gastrointestinal tract may be affected by medication necessary for therapy.
  • Fainting, nervous disorders, asthenia, emotional instability are possible.

In order for the disease not to progress, the following rules must be observed:

  • Turn away from smoking;
  • As often as possible to do cleaning in residential premises;
  • Try to be less in places with polluted air;
  • Limit contact with substances that cause allergic reactions;
  • Time to treat respiratory diseases;
  • Abandon products with chemical composition;
  • Pets must be kept clean. If the diagnosis has already been made, then it is better not to start them;
  • Medicinal products taken only by appointment of a doctor.

Treatment of patients with bronchial asthma is considered mandatory. This is a difficult process, dragging on for life. However, subject to all appointments of doctors, the prognosis is favorable.

Asthma code in ICD 10

In the international classification of diseases ICD 10 asthma is:

Class X. Respiratory Diseases (J00 — J99)

J40-J47 - Chronic lower respiratory tract diseases

J45 - Asthma

  • J45.0 Asthma with a predominance of the allergic component
  • J45.1 Non-allergic asthma
  • J45.8 Mixed Asthma
  • J45.9 Asthma, unspecified


J46 - Asthmatic Status


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