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The rate of antibodies to thyroperoxidase is greatly increased - what does this mean?
Antibodies are protein-carbohydrate compounds produced by the immune system for recognition and elimination of pathogens. These substances are able to respond to the slightest changes and in some pathologies they begin to consider foreign substances and cells of the body.
Analyzing the level of antibodies to microsomal thyroperoxidase helps diagnose pathologies of the thyroid gland or other organs in the early stages of development.
- Антитела к тиреопероксидазе — что это такое? 1 Anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies - what is it?
- Антитела к тиреопероксидазе сильно повышены — что это значит? 2 Anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies are greatly elevated - what does this mean?
- Норма антител к ТПО (тиреопероксидазе), таблица 3 Norm of antibodies to TPO (thyroperoxidase), table
- Антитела к тиреопероксидазе при беременности повышенны 4 Antibodies to thyroperoxidase during pregnancy increased
- Лечение при повышенных антителах к ТПО, препараты 5 Treatment with elevated antibodies to TPO, drugs
Antibodies to thyroperoxidase - what is it?
The thyroid gland (abbr. Thyroid gland) produces the vital hormones thyroxin and triiodothyronine, which regulate metabolic processes.
Thyroid peroxidase (or TPO) is the main enzyme in the synthesis of iodine-containing hormones. It is needed for normal thyroid function.
Antibodies to TPO are immunoglobulins, they act as a marker of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
They are also called microsomal, and they appear if the immune system takes the thyroid cells for alien. Getting with blood to the thyroid gland, these antibodies disrupt the formation of thyroid hormones.
Most often, antibodies to thyroperoxidase are greatly elevated in cases of thyroid diseases, which for a long time have no pronounced symptomatology. In the initial stages, apathy, deterioration of the condition of the nails and hair, dry skin, nervousness, which many attribute to chronic fatigue or vitamin deficiency, are manifested.
Subsequently, hypotension appears, digestion is disturbed, and the reproductive and musculoskeletal systems function. Lack of thyroid hormones provokes an increase in thyroid, which puts pressure on neighboring tissues and organs, causing hoarseness and pain when swallowing. Immunity responds to this by producing antibodies to TPO.
Thyroperoxidase antibodies are greatly elevated - what does this mean?
If antibodies to thyroperoxidase are greatly increased, this means that autoimmune aggression is directed to the thyroid tissue. This is observed by:
In persons not suffering from impaired organ function, an increase in ATTPO (or ATPO) is caused by other diseases that indirectly affect the function of the thyroid:
- rheumatoid arthritis ;
- scleroderma ;
- autoimmune adrenal insufficiency;
- glomerulonephritis ;
- type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent);
- systemic lupus erythematosus ;
- autoimmune gastritis:
- pernicious anemia.
A high level of antibodies to TPO can be both a cause and a consequence of thyroid abnormalities. The increase in ATTPOs can be provoked by certain drugs - lithium or iodine preparations, Interferon, Amiodarone, glucocorticoids.
To detect antibodies to thyroperoxidase, serum of venous blood is studied. If such antibodies were found in a pregnant woman, the analysis must be carried out in a newborn.
A slight deviation of the level of ATTPO from the norm can provoke:
- surgery on the thyroid gland, injuries;
- emotional overstrain;
- acute respiratory diseases;
- recurrence of inflammatory pathologies;
- physiotherapy in the neck.
Regardless of the reasons for the increase in antibodies to thyroperoxidase, thyroid tissue is destroyed by immune cells as a result of an attack, which can trigger development:
- bazedovoy disease (toxic goiter);
- thyroiditis (thyroid inflammation);
- as a result, serious metabolic pathologies in the future.
The rate of antibodies to TPO (thyroperoxidase), table
Table of normal antibodies to thyroperoxidase:
|Age||Norm AT to TPO (u / l)|
|Up to 50 years||Up to 35|
|After 50 years||Up to 100|
With age, there is a tendency to increase antibodies to thyroperoxidase in women, which is especially noticeable in menopause and shortly before its occurrence. In addition to menopause, pregnancy and breastfeeding are critical.
Due to the nature of the test systems used, performance standards and units of measure for the ATTP level may vary among different laboratories.
For example, in many clinics units / ml are used, in such cases, the level of antibodies is considered to be the norm, not more than 5.6.
The values of the norms are attached to the results of the analysis. However, it is not necessary to engage in self-decoding - to diagnose pathology and only a specialist should choose a treatment regimen.
- The ATPO test makes it possible to detect autoimmune pathologies at the earliest stages.
Antibodies to thyroperoxidase during pregnancy increased
If a woman has a child with a thyroid gland in size or an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is diagnosed, then an ATTPD analysis is considered mandatory. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland and affects the synthesis of iodine-containing hormones in the thyroid gland, so its increase may indicate hidden problems with the work of this organ.
Normally, in the early stages it should be low and not exceed 2 mU / L. If it is elevated along with an increase in ATTPO, then this indicates the development of hypothyroidism.
An increase in antibodies to thyroperoxidase during pregnancy can adversely affect not only the condition of the thyroid woman, but also the health of the unborn child. This is due to the fact that ATTPO freely overcome the placental barrier.
Treatment with elevated antibodies to TPO, drugs
High antibodies to thyroperoxidase primarily indicate hypothyroidism - a deficiency of thyroid hormones. In children without treatment, this can lead to the development of cretinism, and in an adult - to myxedema.
Treatment of increasing ATTPO drug - hormonal agents are prescribed by the doctor after the diagnosis. Of the drugs used levothyroxine. The tool is contraindicated in acute heart attack, thyroid hyperfunction, adrenal insufficiency. Its analogues are L-thyroxin and Eutirox.
L-thyroxin is prescribed to pregnant women with TSH above 4 mU / L, even if antibodies to TPO are not elevated. Taking the drug helps to maintain the proper functioning of the thyroid gland.
The effectiveness of therapy is indicated by a decrease in ATPO to insignificant or zero indicators. After treatment, it is important to regularly test for thyroid hormones and antibodies to TPO.