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Angiopathy of the retina, what is it? Types and treatment, especially in children

Angiopathy of retinal vessels can occur in various pathologies, so it is not attributed to an independent disease, but to symptoms. This symptom develops if the underlying disease has a negative effect on the blood vessels of the whole body and the retina of the eye in particular.

Retinal angiopathy - what is it?

Angiopathy is a symptom based on pathological changes in the vascular walls and impaired vascular function. More often, it is detected at the age after 30-35 years. The reason for this may be such violations:

  • diabetes mellitus ;
  • hypertension;
  • various injuries;
  • scoliosis;
  • hypotension;
  • atherosclerosis.

Retinal angiopathy is a lesion of the retinal vessels; their condition usually reflects the problems of the rest of the veins and arteries in the body, in particular, the peripheral ones. For example, in diabetes, the vessels of the eye are affected along with the vessels of the kidneys and legs. Therefore, the term angiopathy is applicable not only in relation to the eyeball.

Due to poor blood supply, the metabolism in the retina is disturbed, this provokes its degenerative, that is, irreversible, changes. If the angiopathy is long-lasting, it can lead to the fact that the region of the retina with the affected vessels becomes thinner, exfoliates and necrotizes (retinopathy).

Disturbance of central vision occurs when the yellow spot is affected, and complete retinal detachment is fraught with the development of blindness.

Angiopathy is also provoked by blood diseases, systemic autoimmune pathologies and cervical osteochondrosis . Among other factors:

  • intoxication of the body (substances at work, poisons);
  • old and old age;
  • nicotine addiction;
  • hereditary vascular diseases.

Content

Types of retinal angiopathy, features

Retinal Angiopathy

Retinal angiopathy is:

  • Diabetic - triggered by diabetes.
  • Traumatic - appears when there is compression or damage to the cervical vertebrae, chest, abdomen or skull, which causes an increase in blood pressure or intracranial pressure. The capillaries at the same time sharply narrowed, hemorrhage occurs in the retina.
  • Hypotonic - occurs due to low blood pressure and slow movement of blood, as a result, blood clots form, and the vessels dilate.
  • Hypertensive angiopathy of the retina (retinopathy) develops due to excessive blood pressure on the vessels. Their inner layer is destroyed, which causes rupture of the walls, hemorrhage and the formation of blood clots. Atherosclerotic plaques, which close the lumen of the vessels, destroy their walls and prevent normal blood flow, have a negative impact.
  • Juvenile - also called Ilza disease, its exact causes have not been established, it is known that this type of angiopathy is accompanied by inflammation of the blood vessels. If connective tissue fibers in the retina grow, it leads to its detachment, the development of diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts.

The symptoms of angiopathy are:

  • reduced visual acuity;
  • the appearance before the eyes of mist and the flashing of the flies;
  • the formation of dark spots;
  • feeling of pressure and pulsation, soreness in the eyes;
  • narrowing of the field of vision;
  • burst eye capillaries;
  • associated signs of the underlying disease.

Angiopathy of the retina in children

Angiopathy of the retina in children

Angiopathy of the retina photo

Damage to the eye vessels in children, as well as in adults, is a symptom of a particular disease. In childhood, diabetes mellitus is most often the cause, and among other factors - scoliosis, blood or kidney disease, rheumatism, eye inflammation, hypertension, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis.

Diabetic angiopathy of the retina of both eyes in a child makes itself felt in the late stages of diabetes. When examining the fundus, the veins are dilated and branched, the retina is swollen, and there are small hemorrhages in it. In the future, atherosclerosis of the vessels develops, visual acuity decreases.

If there is diabetes in a family history of the disease, then the child’s blood sugar level should be monitored regularly, since the risk of developing the disease in children in such families is much higher.

If angiopathy is caused by trauma, then the main signs are pain and bleeding in the eyeball, blurred vision. In hypertensive etiology, veins are initially dilated, and arteries later, and in case of hypotension - the other way round.

In newborns, changes in the retina are not always caused by any disease, for example, they can be observed when the position of the body changes.

In childhood, symptoms similar to angiopathy develop due to excessive exercise and stress. Often they fall on crises, transitional stages in development - at the age of a year and 3 years, among first-graders and adolescents.

Small spots or a mesh of capillaries on the eyeball are the only symptom that parents can notice. Therefore, in the absence of other complaints or if the child has a disease that causes changes in the blood vessels, it is important to regularly visit not only the primary care physician, but also the oculist.

Treatment of retinal angiopathy, drugs

Retinal Angiopathy Treatment

In angiopathy of the retina, treatment is aimed at combating the main pathology. These can be means for normalization of pressure and cholesterol level, sugar-reducing or anti-inflammatory drugs, a specific therapeutic diet, methods for eliminating the effects of injury. The more effective the treatment of the disease is, the sooner it is possible to cope with vascular lesions.

Of the drugs for angiopathy are also shown:

  • Means for reducing the permeability of blood vessels - Calcium Dobesilate, Parmidin, Emoxy-optician;
  • Eye drops that improve blood microcirculation - Emoksipin, Taufon;
  • Antiplatelet agents, they prevent platelet aggregation) - Aspirin, Plidol, Lamifiban, Dipyridamole;
  • Vitamins E, P, C, as well as group B, in particular, in drops - Aysotin (drops with extracts of Ayurvedic herbs), Lutein Complex;
  • Means for improving blood circulation - Vazonit, Kavinton, Arbifleks, Piracetam, Actovegin (children, pregnant and lactating women are not appointed).

Forecast

If treatment is started late or is not performed at all, then the prognosis is disappointing - a cataract, glaucoma and complete loss of vision develop. The prognosis of angiopathy of the eye vessels is favorable only with timely detection and treatment of the underlying disease.

This allows you to prevent lesions of the vascular walls, to delay or stop its development, if the vessels are already involved in the pathological process.

Interesting

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