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Decryption of analyzes

Helicobacter Pylori Tests: Species, Norm and Decoding

Helicobacter pylori is a helical bacteria that is resistant to the effects of gastric juice. Once in the body, it settles in the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, leading to its inflammation, the development of erosions, gastritis, peptic ulcer.

Timely detection of Helicobacter pylori infection is the key to successful treatment of these and other pathologies, including cancer.

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When is an H.pylori analysis necessary?

Helicobacter Pylori Tests

Analysis is needed when a person complains of discomfort and pain in the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms that require testing for the presence of this bacterium are:

  • regular heartburn;
  • heaviness in the stomach;
  • painful sensations, in particular those that disappear after eating;
  • the rejection of the body of meat food until nausea and vomiting.

Laboratory examination is carried out if there is a suspicion of a peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastritis, and malignant tumors.

It includes four methods:

  • ELISA - ELISA for antibodies to Helicobacter pylori;
  • UBT (urea breath tests) - urease breathing test;
  • PCR - feces;
  • mucosal biopsy with cytology.

What do the tests show?

ELISA: blood test

blood test for chylobacter pylori

blood test for chylobacter pylori

Shows the presence and concentration of antibodies to helicobacter pylori in the blood. Their appearance is a signal that the immunity has detected the pathogen and started a fight with it.

For each type of pathogenic microorganisms their own immunoglobulins are produced. Antibodies to H. pylori appear in the blood from a week to a month after infection and there are three types: IgA, IgG and IgM. They indicate the presence and stage of infection.

PCR: feces analysis

This method is the most reliable, with its help, the DNA of the pathogen is detected in the patient’s feces.

PCR finds even a negligible amount of bacteria, which helps to predict the disease and reveals a tendency to the development of gastritis, cancer of the stomach, intestines and other pathologies associated with H. pylori infection.

Respiratory analysis

Bacteria H. pylori to protect against the acid of gastric juice secrete the enzyme - urease. It has the ability to break down urea into two substances - ammonia and carbon dioxide CO2, which is released during respiration and is detected by the method of urease test.

A respiratory test for Helicobacter pylori is performed using a urea solution labeled with carbon isotopes. For children and pregnant women apply less accurate, but safe helik test with urea.

Cytological analysis

This type of study shows the presence of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus. The test is considered positive when it detects at least one bacterium, and, depending on the number of H. pylori, they reveal the degree of contamination:

  • weak (+) - up to 20 bacteria;
  • moderate (++) - 20-40;
  • high (+++) - ≥40.

How to get tested for Helicobacter pylori?

How to get tested for Helicobacter pylori? For studies on antibodies to H. pylori, blood taken from a vein is used. In vitro, it is folded using a special gel that separates the plasma from the formed elements (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells).

In the presence of the bacterium H.pylori in the body, it is in the plasma that the desired immunoglobulins are detected. A blood test for Helicobacter pylori is taken in the morning, on an empty stomach. The day before, you can not eat fatty foods.

The analysis of feces requires preparation - for 3 days before putting it, you should not eat food with a large amount of fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals), with coloring agents and salt.

During this period, it is also forbidden to give an enema, take antibiotics, preparations for enhancing peristalsis and use rectal suppositories.

A respiratory test for Helicobacter pylori is taken as follows:

  • The patient breathes twice into the tube placed deep in the mouth.
  • Then he drinks a test solution of urea labeled with carbon isotopes.
  • After 15 minutes, give another 4 portions of exhaled air.
  • If the second test shows the appearance of carbon isotope in the samples, the result is considered positive.

It is important that the saliva does not get into the tube, otherwise the procedure will have to be repeated. 3 days before the urease test, it is forbidden to drink alcohol and foods that provoke gas formation in the intestines (legumes, cabbage, rye bread, apples and others).

From 10 o'clock in the evening until the analysis itself it is impossible to eat, on the day of delivery it is necessary to avoid factors that increase salivation (chewing gum, smoking). An hour before the test should not drink anything.

In cytological analysis, smears of gastric mucus taken during fibrogastroduodenoscopy are examined (this is a method for inspecting the gastrointestinal tract using a probe).

Deciphering the results of analysis on hilobacter pylori

Decoding blood test

When analyzing blood for Helicobacter pylori, the results depend on the presence or absence of immunoglobulins against bacteria, as shown in the table below.

Three types of antibodies to H. pylori (A, G and M) appear at different stages of infection and help determine how much time has passed since the infection.

Result IgA Igg Igm
Positive Indicates infection by bacteria. The presence of infection or residual antibodies after treatment. Indicates an early stage of infection.
Negative
  • The early period of infection (when it is not detected).
  • There are no bacteria H.pylori in the body.
  • The recovery period, antibacterial therapy.
There are no bacteria or infection has occurred recently. Indicates the absence of infection with negative IgG and IgA.

Breath test

The urease breath test gives a negative or positive result.

When a Helicobacter pylori is detected, a quantitative study is performed using a mass spectrometer. However, depending on the percentage of carbon isotope in exhaled air, there are 4 degrees of infection (values ​​are indicated in percent):

  • 1-3,4 - easy;
  • 3.5-6.4 - medium;
  • 6.5-9.4 - heavy;
  • more than 9.5 - extremely heavy.

Stool analysis

Deciphering the stool and gastric mucus tests is simple: they give either a negative, when no bacteria are detected, or a positive result.

Analysis rate

Laboratories conducting blood tests for Helicobacter pylori have their own reference values, or normal values. They are always indicated on the form.

A value below the threshold is regarded as negative, and above - as positive. For example, for IgG antibodies, the following figures are often used (in U / l):

  1. above 1.1 - the development of infection;
  2. below 0.9 - no infection;
  3. from 0.9 to 1.1 - doubtful values ​​that require additional verification.

Often Helicobacter pylori infection is dangerous for the development of peptic ulcer and gastritis, therefore, along with laboratory tests, the gastroenterologist also prescribes other methods for accurate diagnosis of pathology.

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