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Decryption of analyzes

Thyroid hormone tests

The thyroid gland (abbr. Thyroid) is located on the frontal surface of the laryngeal tube in the lower part of the neck. This organ of internal secretion provides normal metabolism, tissue respiration, affects the work of the heart, muscles, nervous system, performs other functions.

It consists of two parts, its right share, as a rule, a little more. и контроля лечения. A blood test for thyroid hormones is performed to detect thyroid disease and monitor treatment.


Indications for the study

What tests do the thyroid hormones? The main indicators are six:

  • T4 and T3 (designation of thyroxin and triiodothyronine) are the main hormones of the thyroid, they accelerate the metabolism and energy, affect the functioning of muscle tissue, heart and nervous system. The analysis takes into account the total concentration of each of them and the level of active T3 and T4 molecules (free).
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH for short) is produced in the pituitary gland and controls the synthesis and secretion of the two above-mentioned hormones.
  • AT-TG - antibodies to thyroglobulin protein.
  • Calcitonin - regulates phosphorus and calcium metabolism.
  • AT-TPO is the level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, which takes an active part in the production of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid hormone tests

Thyroid hormone tests

Blood tests for determining the concentration of hormones are primarily shown if you suspect such pathologies:

  • hyperthyroidism, in which the production of hormones is increased;
  • hypothyroidism, in contrast, is associated with depression of the thyroid gland;
  • tumor tumors of the thyroid gland;
  • diffuse, endemic and other types of goiter.

Indications for analysis are the symptoms:

  • cardiopalmus;
  • exophthalmos - puseglaziye;
  • thyroid enlargement;
  • weight loss with good appetite and weight gain in the absence thereof;
  • mood swings;
  • baldness;
  • failure in the menstrual cycle, in particular, amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation;
  • temperature changes, chilliness, or sweating;
  • problems with potency, decreased sexual desire.

The delivery of tests for thyroid hormones is indicated for weight correction, infertility, and the child’s mental and sexual development lagging.

Studies are also conducted after surgery on the thyroid gland and to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment of hormonal dysfunction.

Preparation for the analysis

Blood is taken in the morning on an empty stomach, about half an hour before that you need to be at rest. To prepare for the analysis of thyroid hormones should:

  • During the month prior to taking blood, do not take drugs that affect the level of thyroid hormones.
  • A week before the study, stop eating food and supplements with iodine - fish, iodized salt, sea kale, and give up spicy, spicy and fried foods.
  • 72 hours to eliminate the effects of stress, alcohol, coffee and drugs with iodine.

Preparation includes giving up cigarettes the day before the examination.

Pregnancy tests

Pregnancy tests

The hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are important for the proper development of the fetus, especially the brain, heart and blood vessels. Their lack or excess in the body of a pregnant woman is harmful to the health of the unborn child.

  • Hypothyroidism during this period is dangerous spontaneous abortion in the first months, fetal death, the risk of having a child with impaired organ development or mental retardation.
  • Hyperthyroidism, that is, increased thyroid function, can lead to premature labor, preeclampsia (edema, high blood pressure and protein in the urine ), developmental defects, and a lack of fetal weight.

During pregnancy, the thyroid gland is experiencing large loads and slightly increases.

In the first trimester, a quarter of women are characterized by physiological thyrotoxicosis, when TSH is slightly reduced, and T4 and T3 are elevated.

During pregnancy, the doctor prescribes thyroid hormone level tests for problems with the body’s work, a woman’s complaints about fatigue, poor skin and hair condition, and drowsiness, which are often signs of hypothyroidism.

The main studied hormones and their norm are shown in the table.

TSH, in µMU / ml

first trimester - 0.35-2.5, second and third - 0.35-3

T4, pmol / l


T3, pmol / l


Norm level of thyroid hormones

Normal values ​​of the blood test for hormone levels are presented in the table. For total T3 and T4, the values ​​are given in nmol / l, and for free ones - in pmol / l.





Calcitonin, pmol / l





0.4-4 honey / l





Not higher than 40 IU / ml

Up to 1.46 for women and up to 2.46 for men

The level of TSH level is largely determined by the nature of physical exertion, emotional state, and time of year.

Decoding results

Decryption of tests allows to identify iodine deficiency disease, a change in the thyroid gland (hyper- or hypothyroidism, toxic goiter) or a predisposition to the pathologies of this organ.

The attending physician determines the diagnosis or condition of the body by the deviation of the level of hormones in the smaller or larger side of the norm.





Primary hypothyroidism

Low or normal


Secondary hypothyroidism






Deciphering the result of an analysis of thyroid hormones is not difficult, if you understand the relationship between the work of the organ and the pituitary gland.

High TSH values ​​always indicate a decrease in thyroid function, and vice versa.

Both disorders - hypo-and hyperthyroidism - can be considered as syndromes of various pathologies, for example, thyroxine production is increased in obesity, diffuse goiter, and reduced in pregnancy, fasting, taking certain medications.

Basic hormones


decoding of TSH in the analysis of the thyroid gland A higher thyroid-stimulating hormone indicates hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, neuropsychiatric agitation, certain types of tumors, or severe non-thyroid pathology.

An increase in TSH is also observed after taking morphine and other drugs. Low values ​​reveal primary hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis.

The reason may be another disease that is not associated with the thyroid, so for the accuracy of the diagnosis necessarily prescribe other tests.


The concentration of free thyroxin is increased in the case of hyperthyroidism, obesity, somatic and mental disorders, impaired adrenal glands. It is lowered in the third trimester of pregnancy, with hypothyroidism, fasting, high physical activity.

A high concentration of total T4 is associated with obesity, may indicate an acute form of hepatitis, an inactive phase of HIV, porphyria, hyperbilirubinemia, is detected during pregnancy.

A low level occurs when fasting, kidney disease and gastrointestinal tract, many somatic pathologies.


Total triiodothyronine increases with excessive thyroid function, hepatitis, pregnancy, AIDS, porphyria, and decreases due to hypothyroidism, fasting, hemolysis, abnormalities of the digestive system, kidneys and liver.

The blood test for free T3 shows an increase in hyperthyroidism, hormonal toxicosis, and is reduced in the case of insufficient thyroid function, renal failure, the third trimester of pregnancy, artifactual thyrotoxicosis.

In the syndrome of peripheral vascular resistance, its blood level can be either higher or lower than normal.

Extras: the rate of thyroid hormones in women , table.

Additional indicators

  • TG - thyroglobulin is normally present in meager amounts, and most of it is concentrated in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The appearance of its high concentration indicates non-toxic, endemic, multinodal or diffuse goiter, thyroid cancer, and thyroiditis.
  • AT-TPO - an increase in the blood of these antibodies indicates an autoimmune pathology of the thyroid gland.
  • Calcitonin is included in the base list of tumor markers, as it indicates the development of a cancerous tumor.
  • AT-TG - a high level of antibodies to thyroglobulin can be a signal of Graves disease, thyroiditis, idiopathic myxedema, pernicious anemia, carcinoma (cancer) of the thyroid gland or other autoimmune and chromosomal disorders.

What diseases does a hormone test detect?

Determining the level of blood hormones in the thyroid gland helps to detect many serious diseases during the initial development stage and start treatment in time. We hope this article fully answers this question.

Always take tests prescribed by your doctor - this is the key to timely diagnosis and successful treatment.


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