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Explanation of analyzes

The analysis on ljamblii: kinds how to be prepared and hand over, decoding

The causative agent of Giardiasis is the simplest microorganism Lamblia Giardia. Lamblias can be present in soil, tap water, on the surface of furniture, household items, clothing, and for a long time preserving viability in such conditions.

Most often, the source of infection is a sick person, in the intestine of which these microorganisms are parasitic. Among children, the disease is more common than in adults, and the lamblias feature is that they infect a sufficient small number of parasites.

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What analyzes on ljamblii it is necessary to hand over?

lamblia - photo and 3d model

Lamblius - photo and 3d model

When an adult is infected, Giardiasis often does not manifest itself at all, and recovery comes on its own after a few weeks. If symptoms are present, then there is constant diarrhea, soreness and colic in the abdomen, fatigue and weight loss.

The main source of information for the doctor in the diagnosis are blood and feces. These tests on Giardia supplement each other and allow you to accurately determine the presence of an agent in the patient's body.

Analysis of lamblia in a child

In children, the protective mechanisms of the digestive system are not developed enough compared to adults, and if they get into the body, lamblia in most cases cause them a disease with severe symptoms.

In the small intestine, the causative agent leads to a disruption in the integrity of the mucosa, and inflammation begins. As a result, spasms appear, peristalsis and digestion are disturbed, vitamins and nutrients are absorbed badly.

At the initial stage, giardiasis manifests as an acute infection of the intestine, causing abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and sometimes vomiting. In a latent form, pathology rarely occurs.

Analysis of lamblia in a child

The chronic course of Giardiasis is accompanied by flatulence, rumbling in the abdomen, paleness of the skin, alternation of diarrhea and constipation, and the tongue is covered with a light bloom. The child quickly becomes tired, becomes irritable and capricious.

These symptoms are a signal to pass tests on lamblia in a child, having conducted a study of stool and blood. The coprogram allows you to find the feces of lamblia in the feces.

возбудитель не всегда обнаруживается, даже если присутствует в организме человека. This method is inexpensive and common, but not enough informative - the causative agent is not always detected, even if present in the human body.

For an accurate diagnosis, an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) is performed, 3 weeks after infection, it helps to determine the presence of antibodies to lamblia in venous blood.

How to prepare and pass the analysis?

The rules of preparation for the delivery of tests on Giardia:

  • for 2-3 days you should not smoke and drink alcohol;
  • on the day of delivery, you must not subject yourself to intensive physical exertion;
  • the day before the study you need to exclude from the diet fat and spicy food;
  • blood on ljamblii it is impossible to hand over after any procedures of a physiotherapy, an x-ray or rectal inspection;
  • it is important to take tests on an empty stomach;
  • before the study should be discussed in the doctor taking any medications to avoid a false-negative result.

For the coprogram, a fresh sample of feces is taken, which is taken directly at the clinic, or it must be collected in the morning and placed in a container with a preservative that must be given out in advance.

If there is no special container, then the material can be collected in any clean dishes, but in this case it is important to quickly deliver it to the laboratory. The blood for analysis on lamblia is taken from the vein on the inner crook of the elbow.

Blood test for Giardia

Indications for blood donation for lamblia:

  • nausea;
  • bloating;
  • difficulty digestion;
  • pain in the intestines and stomach;
  • constant rumbling in the abdomen;
  • Diarrhea and its alternation with constipation.

Detect lambliasis in the blood can only 7-21 days after the ingestion of protozoa in the body. The causative agent may not manifest itself, but if any of the above symptoms appear, you need to visit a doctor and not engage in self-medication.

Explanation of the blood test

Interpretation of the analysis on ljamblii When decoding the blood test for Giardia, the presence or absence of specific antibodies IgM and IgG, which are responsible for the destruction of the pathogen, as well as their percentage of pathogens, are taken into account.

In the acute form of giardiasis, antibodies of IgG always appear, and their amount together with IgM sharply increases in the course of chronic disease.

The result of the study can be negative, questionable or positive. Immunoglobulins to lamblia can be present in the blood in other infectious and parasitic pathologies, so an accurate diagnosis of lambliasis can only be made after a comprehensive examination.

Analysis of feces on ljamblii

Investigation of feces is important to be carried out within 5-7 days from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms. The analysis of feces for lamblia cysts is carried out in the presence of watery diarrhea, stomach cramps and other signs in which blood is shown (see above).

Decoding of stool analysis

If the excrement in large numbers detected the pathogen and its proteins, then this is considered a positive result of the analysis of feces on Giardia. Otherwise, the laboratory test is repeated a week later.

ELISA and PCR diagnostics

PCR diagnosis on ljamblii

To accurately diagnose giardiasis and other infectious, as well as immune pathologies, methods that investigate molecular structures of pathogens are successfully used. A special place here is occupied by PCR and ELISA assays.

PCR analysis for the detection of parasites

This method allows to detect parasite cells in the upper part of the small intestine. Polymerase chain reaction is directed to the study of the DNA fragment of lamblia on the basis of the sequence of the genome of this simplest organism.

Blood and feces, sometimes bile, are used as a starting material for carrying out the PCR test , and the analysis data give information on the stage and intensity of infection, and help evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.

The study uses highly sensitive equipment, and a positive analysis on Giardia indicates that the DNA of Giardia Lamblia has been detected. If the result is questionable, the level of antibody content and the activity of the immune response are evaluated.

Method of ELISA diagnosis of Giardiasis

To study the immune and enzymatic reaction of blood allows the ELISA analysis on lamblia, during which antibodies and antigens are identified, that is, protective cells (globulins) and proteins of the pathogen of the infection, as well as their ratio.

For the immunoenzyme assay, three serum samples are taken and the presence of antibodies IgM and IgG, cysts (passive forms) and vegetative (active, reproducing) lamblia is determined in them:

  1. With the development of Giardiasis for 4-12 months, ELISA does not find IgG in the blood, and IgM is (kp.1-2) +.
  2. The acute course of the disease is indicated by the presence of cysts and IgM (kp. = 2).
  3. With a long course of pathology (six months and longer) IgM is not found, active lamblia is few, and IgG is (kp.1-2).
  4. If both types of antibodies are absent in the blood serum, then this indicates a secondary development of the pathological process against the background of immunodeficiency.

From the timeliness and correctness of the diagnosis depends the effectiveness of the therapy of Giardiasis, so for any symptoms, do not hesitate to visit the doctor, especially if it is about the health of the child.

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