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Decryption of analyzes

Analysis of enterobiasis - how to pass, the rules of scraping, the results

What it is?

The analysis on enterobiosis is a laboratory examination of a material taken on an adhesive tape or a cotton swab from skin folds around the anus, conducted under a microscope. It is made in order to detect or exclude enterobiasis infection. Typically, this method of sampling a biological product for laboratory tests is called "scraping on enterobiosis."

Enterobiasis is a helminthiasis - parasitic diseases caused by worms, and develops when infected with pinworms - nematode-class worms.

The thirty-day cycle of the parasite’s life begins after the ingestion of mature eggs through the mouth into the human intestines. From the egg emerges the larva, which turns into an adult.

Enterobiasis Analysis

Pinworms are freely moving around the intestines and mate. Females mainly parasitize in the initial section of the colon. A special feature of pinworms is that they can lay eggs only outside the human body.

  • Therefore, the study of feces for enterobiosis is not carried out due to its low information content.

In order to carry out the clutch, an adult, mature female worm crawls out through the anus. This occurs at night, when the muscles around the anus relax, which allows the worms to freely exit.

On the skin around the anus pinworms lay a large number of asymmetric small eggs with a transparent shell. After laying the female dies.

Sometimes the development of the larvae from the egg occurs in the anal zone. Then the larva can independently penetrate through the anus into the intestine, in which its life cycle will be continued. But most often eggs from the skin fall on the hands, bedding and underwear, can get on the floor, carpets, toys, children's pot (therefore, these items represent a special epidemiological danger).

They have a high infectious ability, as they are very resistant to the effects of the external environment - they retain their viability for 2–3 weeks, they are relatively little susceptible to drying, and are well preserved in dust.

With household items, eggs fall into the hands, and then into the mouth. Thus the fecal-oral mechanism of transmission of the pathogen. In this regard, the main contingent, suffering from enterobiasis, are children who attend day care facilities - preschoolers and younger students.

This fact, in addition to the high infectiousness of eggs, is explained by the fact that young children often forget to wash their hands in time because of poor hygienic skills.

In the world, as in Russia, enterobiosis is considered the most common helminthiasis . The data of the World Health Organization speak of an infection of 350 million people with a prevailing children's population. Therefore, the analysis of enterobiosis is very popular.

Content

What are the symptoms of an enterobiosis test?

What symptoms does enterobiosis do

Despite the short life of one worm, the disease of enterobiasis can last for many years, given the possibility of re-self-infection by transferring eggs to the patient's hands while scratching the anal zone. Therefore, conducting a study on enterobiosis is necessary when the following symptoms appear:

  • Itching in the anus, mainly at night, which is explained by the moment the female emerges. The intensity of itching varies and depends on the massiveness of the invasion - itching can become strong and constant, spread to the perineum and genitals.
  • Scratches on the skin, around the anus, which can be inflamed, become wet, rot.
  • Pain caused by inflammation of itchy areas.
  • On the part of the gastrointestinal tract: bloating, rumbling, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, stool changes to the side, both anchoring and relaxation.
  • Irritability, fatigue, poor sleep, especially in children.
  • Fainting, bedwetting, in severe cases - seizures resembling epileptic seizures.
  • Signs of appendicitis: pain in the abdomen (first in the stomach, then in the lower abdomen , on the right), nausea, temperature 37.5 C. Inflammation of the appendix can be triggered by the accumulation of adult pinworms in it. However, in this case it is possible to do without surgical intervention - the prescription of conservative antihelminthic therapy is required.
  • Itching, signs of inflammation of the vagina, uterus and fallopian tubes in girls. These manifestations develop with the penetration of worms in the genitals.
  • Weight loss with normal and increased appetite.

In children, the manifestations of enterobiosis are especially pronounced. In adults, the disease is asymptomatic or with minimal manifestations, so they often become hidden sources of the disease.

In connection with this reason, a preventive examination of catering workers, educators and teachers for enterobiasis is recommended.

Also tests for enterobiasis and worms eggs (feces research for the presence of helminth eggs) are included in the compulsory study of children when they enter kindergarten and school, before leaving for summer camp.

  • A study on enterobiosis is necessary when obtaining a certificate to visit the pool, sanitary book, as well as before hospitalization.

How to get tested for enterobiosis (scraping)?

How to test for enterobiasis

You can take the analysis by contacting the clinic, in the department of sanitary-epidemiological station, in a paid clinic. Having received the referral, you need the next day in the morning, without performing the toilet of the anus and genitals, as well as refraining from defecation, and for women and urination, to approach the material intake in a medical institution.

In this case, there is no need to specifically purchase a container for biomaterial, and there is no loss of time for delivery to the laboratory.

But given that the activity of pinworms is especially pronounced in the early morning hours, it is possible to conduct an independent sampling of material for analysis of enterobiosis.

How to take your own? You must first buy in a pharmacy or take in a laboratory that will conduct research (usually commercial laboratories provide containers), a sterile tube with a cotton swab, or special glass with adhesive tape (for this method you can take scotch and specimen laboratory glass, which must be degreased beforehand with alcohol ).

Material intake should be carried out without getting out of bed. If a smear / imprint of a child is taken, the child lies on its side. In a child, the probability of finding pinworm eggs is higher after a bad and restless sleep at night.

1. Method with test tube and wand:

  • Remove the wand from the tube;
  • Spread the buttocks with your free hand;
  • Cotton end of the stick to hold around the anus, slightly pressing the stick on the skin;
  • Carefully, without touching anything, place the wand in a test tube and close tightly.

2. Adhesive tape method:

  • To peel off the adhesive tape from the glass, at the same time try not to contaminate the surface of the glass;
  • Spread the buttocks with your free hand;
  • For 1-2 seconds, stick a sticky tape on the skin folds in the anus;
  • Carefully peel off the tape from the skin and, without touching the sticky surface with your hands or other objects, quickly paste it back to the place where it was glued on the glass;
  • Place the glass in the bag.

The material for analysis obtained at home must be delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours; samples must be placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of 2-4 ° C before transport.

When conducting a material intake, visual detection of mature individuals is possible. In this case, the worm must be placed in a glass jar with alcohol and in the same way delivered to the laboratory.

How much analysis is done on enterobiosis?

The usual time for analysis is 1 day. The result is given the next day after the day the biomaterial is delivered to the laboratory.

The results of the analysis on enterobiosis

The conclusion from the laboratory will be as follows:

  1. A positive result means that there is enterobiasis;
  2. A negative result says that there is no enterobiasis.

A positive result confirms the presence of enterobiosis. In this case, it is necessary to investigate for enterobiasis all family members of the patient, as well as those who are in contact with him. This is especially true of children attending kindergartens and other organized groups.

A negative result may indicate both the absence of the disease, and the wrong sampling of the material or the fact that on the day of taking the analysis there was no release of the female helminth for laying eggs. Thus, a negative result cannot reliably exclude the absence of pinworms in the body.

With a negative result on the background of clinical signs of enterobiosis, it is necessary to analyze several times.

Reliability increases to 99% with a 5-fold study. Three tests are usually performed either in a row, every day, if itching is pronounced, or at intervals of several days, within 1-2 weeks.

In this case, the reliability will be about 90%. A one-time analysis is positive in 50% of cases, and in other cases it is either false negative or negative.

If it is not possible to fix the laying of eggs, and the symptoms of enterobiosis are expressed, in this case, it is possible to carry out treatment without laboratory confirmation (at the discretion of the doctor). It is also possible to carry out PCR diagnostics. But it is quite a costly study.

How long does the analysis on enterobiosis work?

The analysis on enterobiosis is valid for 10 days. After this time, infection is possible, so the study is repeated as part of regular preventive examinations of the decreed population.

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