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Decryption of analyzes

Urinalysis according to Zimnitsky: urine collection, interpretation of results, features

The kidneys excrete water and substances dissolved in it. To assess the work and functionality of the organs, a domestic therapist, S. Zimnitsky proposed a special sample, which is based on the analysis of the density of urine.

What it is?

The blood entering the kidneys is filtered by special tubules. At the same time, excess liquid diffuses, and with it various amines, salts and other substances.

The primary filtration is replaced by the secondary, as a result of which useful compounds are absorbed from the urine back into the blood - for example, proteins and carbohydrates.

The essence of the Zimnitsky method is to determine the density of the fluid excreted from the body, its specific weight. If the figures are lower or higher than normal, then doctors talk about a change in urine concentration and a violation of the filtration function of the kidneys.

Deep biochemical analysis in this study is not performed, but with a positive result of the sample, additional measures are possible.

Why spend a test on Zimnitsky?

sample on Zimnitsky

If the patient turns to the nephrologist with complaints of pain in the kidney area, then he is obliged to prescribe a urine test for sugar and protein. In addition, they carry out an x-ray examination of the excretory organs for inflammation.

But there are cases when these methods do not give results. Those. pain syndrome is present, and the cause of its occurrence is not known.

The physical characteristics of the fluid being withdrawn (volume and density) will clarify the situation. The study of urine samples according to Zimnitsky is considered to be very informative, and it is prescribed for patients with suspected pyelonephritis, renal failure, or heart disease.

The technique is not difficult, but the patient must collect urine every 3 hours for a full day.


Algorithm for collecting urine in Zimnitsky

Any medical analysis has an error. In addition, even with normal health, a change in the urine concentration of organic and mineral compounds is observed.

Therefore, in order to obtain the most reliable results, it is necessary to exclude diuretics, which significantly affect the physical characteristics of the fluid, before 1 day before sampling.

Urine collection algorithm

Urine collection algorithm

The patient is also forbidden to eat foods that increase the feeling of thirst (salty and spicy), although you should not change the usual mode of drinking (1.5-2 liters per day).

How to properly collect urine analysis Zimnitsky? First of all, prepare 8 tanks. Special containers can be purchased at the pharmacy, but ordinary glass jars up to 0.5 l will be suitable. They are numbered and signed so that confusion does not arise in the laboratory. Urine collected according to this algorithm:

  1. At 6 o'clock in the morning emptied into the toilet.
  2. Every 3 hours, starting from 9.00, collect urine in the appropriate jars.
  3. Samples stored in the refrigerator.

In total, you get 8 cans of urine collected at 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 3 and 6 hours. If the patient has no urge, then the container is simply left empty.

However, it is not thrown away, and together with the filled containers they are delivered to the laboratory for research. Specialists will conduct the necessary analyzes and decipher the data in accordance with the averaged norms.

Norms analysis of urine Zimnitsky

The density of urine varies in the range of 1.013-1.025. This means that in some jars the rates will be higher, in others - lower. In general, the following results are considered normal:

  • daily volume of urine does not exceed 2 liters;
  • in 2-3 tanks density is not less than 1,020;
  • daily portions are 3-5 times longer than night;
  • output fluid is 60-80% consumed;
  • no indicators above 1,035.

When conducting a urinalysis for Zimnitsky decoding of the results will largely depend on compliance with the rules of the fence. If the patient drank too much water, then it will go out above the norm. But the lack of fluid intake will also lead to errors in the study. Therefore, on the day of sampling, it is necessary to concentrate on the task in order not to have to repeat the procedure.

Interpretation of urine tests according to Zimnitsky, table

So, the patient collected the material and sent it to the laboratory, the experts conducted experiments and received certain information. What next? Identify the compliance indicators of urine analysis Zimnitsky norm. The table clearly demonstrates diseases characteristic of various deviations.

Table. Decoding results.
Average Diseases
Density below 1.012 (hypostenuria) 1. Acute or chronic kidney inflammation.

2. Renal failure.

3. Heart diseases.

4. Diabetes insipidus .

Density is higher than 1,025 (hyperstenuria) 1. Damage to the renal tissue ( glomerulonephritis ).

2. Blood disorders.

3. Pregnancy.

4. Diabetes.

Urine volume above 2 liters (polyuria) Renal failure.

Diabetes (sugar and non-sugar).

Urine volume below 1.5 liters (oliguria) 1. Renal failure.

2. Heart diseases.

Night diuresis more day ( nocturia ) 1. Renal failure.

2. Heart diseases.

Deciphering urine tests for Zimnitsky The table displays brief diagnostic information. A more detailed consideration of the causes of the violation of urine density will help to understand the problem.

Renal failure

If the patient has suffered from renal failure for several years, the excretory organs simply lose their ability to perform their functions normally.

Accompanying symptoms are often general deterioration of health and constant feeling of thirst, which leads to increased fluid intake and, as a consequence, low urine density and a large daily withdrawal.

Kidney inflammation

Two- or one-sided inflammation of the kidneys also reduces the functionality of the organs due to the occurring pathological hyperplasia.

Accompanied by pain in the lumbar region and fever, so the Zimnitsky sample is performed to clarify (confirm the diagnosis).

Additional biochemical analysis demonstrates an increased protein concentration, which also indicates a violation of the filtration process.

Heart pathologies

The body is one. And if doctors diagnose a malfunction of the kidneys, this fact gives grounds for checking cardiac activity. And often suspicions are confirmed on the electrocardiogram.

Congenital or acquired pathology of the heart leads to disruption of blood flow and changes in pressure in the vessels, which is naturally reflected in the filtering process: the volume and density of the excreted fluid noticeably decrease, and at night a person is worried about frequent urging to the toilet.


If the kidneys are not sufficiently reabsorbed glucose absorption, then doctors suspect diabetes . This disease is also characterized by thirst, increased appetite and other signs.

However, the key points are the high density of urine and a large amount of glycated hemoglobin in the blood.

Diabetes insipidus

Considerable danger is diabetes insipidus . In fact, this is an endocrine failure, expressed in a deficiency of one of the hypothalamus hormones - vasopressin.

It is precisely its deficiency that leads to excessive removal of fluid from the body, which is accompanied by a decrease in urine density. In addition, a person is very tormented by thirst, and the urge to the toilet takes a pathological character.


When glomerulonephritis reveals a low permeability of the renal glomeruli. This naturally complicates the process of diffusion, and therefore the reverse absorption of compounds into the blood is disturbed - urine acquires a density in excess of 1.035.

In addition, tests often demonstrate the presence of red blood cells and proteins in samples.

Features during pregnancy

However, urine proteins are not necessarily pathological. For example, during pregnancy, a woman's body suffers from toxemia, which provokes a violation of protein filtration.

In addition, fetal growth leads to an increase in pressure and functional load on the kidneys. After birth, the situation with the excretory and other organs normalizes.

Blood diseases

Blood diseases associated with changes in the quality and quantity of the formed elements - in particular, red blood cells - are considered to be much more dangerous.

Excessively dense plasma according to the law of diffusion releases more components into the urine, so its density increases. If a person has anemia, then, among other things, the kidneys suffer from oxygen starvation, which directly affects the functionality.


The urinalysis according to Zimnitsky is performed as a primary diagnosis. The method is considered very informative, and a positive test result gives grounds for a more detailed examination of the kidneys, heart and blood.


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