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Decryption of analyzes

Analysis of smears in women: decoding the results and norms of indicators

It is necessary to visit the gynecologist every six months. This will keep women's health under control and in time to identify the disease. The simplest and most accessible method of research in gynecology is the taking of a gynecological smear.

Deciphering such an analysis will allow the doctor to see changes in the female genital system that are not visible during external examination.

  • Taking a smear is absolutely painless and takes only a couple of minutes. Health hazards she does not bear, can be carried out even in pregnant women.


When do I need to take a smear for flora?

Deciphering smear analysis for flora

Deciphering smear analysis for flora can tell the gynecologist about the presence of genital infections, inflammation, hormonal disorders in a woman's body.

A smear on flora (gynecological smear) is necessarily carried out if a woman makes the following complaints:

  1. Highlight unusual color of the genital tract.
  2. Pain in the abdomen at rest or during sexual contact.
  3. Itching and burning sensation in the genital area.
  4. The appearance of an unpleasant odor in the discharge.

Also, smears are taken during preventive examinations.

Interpreting smear results

With the help of letters, the doctor marks the place where the smear is taken. Latin letters are commonly used: V, C, U.

Swabs are taken from three points: the vagina (V-vagina), the cervix (C-cervix) and the urethral opening (U-uretra).

In deciphering a smear on the flora of women, you can find the strange word "cocci." Cocci are microorganisms that have a rounded shape. This is a group of conditionally pathogenic organisms that are constantly present in the body.

However, they must be in a certain amount. As soon as their number exceeds the allowable, cocci can cause unpleasant symptoms due to inflammation. In gynecology, this condition is called nonspecific colpitis.

Cocci is divided into two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative. Such a division has an important diagnostic value in determining the pathogenicity of a microorganism that has settled in the vagina.

Coccal flora in a smear, gr. + Or gr. - cocci

Coccal flora in a smear

smear on flora cocci sticks

The division of microbes into gram-negative and gram-positive appeared in microbiology after a Danish scientist by the name of Gram revealed the ability of microorganisms to be painted in different colors, depending on the degree of their resistance to antibiotics.

When coloring drugs used a special dye of dark blue or purple. The scientist noticed that some microbes are colored blue and others pink, although the dye is the same.

After careful research, it was found that pink or crimson-colored microbes are less susceptible to antibiotics. To come their death, you should make a lot of effort.

Microorganisms that are well stained in blue, called gram-positive (gram +), and those that remained pink - gram-negative (gram).

Pale staining and resistance to antibacterial drugs was simply explained: these bacteria had a thicker coat. The structure of the wall has a more complex structure than that of gram (+) cocci, which means that it is much more difficult for a dye or antibiotic to penetrate into its layers.

For the gynecologist is important such a separation. Detection of gram (+) cocci in a smear is allowed. Such microorganisms include staphylococcus and streptococcus, which may be present in the vagina of a healthy woman.

Gram (-) cocci can cause disease. The most common representatives of this group in gynecology are gonococci, pathogens of gonorrhea.

What are Dederlein sticks?

Mandatory element of women's health is the vaginal rod flora. Dederleyn sticks - a generic name that combines large and fixed Gram-positive sticks, providing the normal microflora of the female genital organs.

They can be found under the name of lactobacilli or gram-positive bacilli.

Dederleyn sticks play an important role in the life of a woman:

  • They contribute to the maintenance of the acidic environment in the vagina, which ensures the careful selection of spermatozoa during fertilization.
  • As you know, sperm do not long live in an acidic environment. Therefore, inferior, weakened male cells are the first to die, which only allows the strongest and strongest to reach the goal.
  • Inhibit the development of pathogenic microorganisms through the activation of macrophages.
  • Allocate hydrogen peroxide - helps "maintain purity" in the vagina.

In a smear of a healthy woman, Dederlein sticks should be plentiful. Reducing their number suggests possible problems with women's health.

What is a leptotrix (Leptotrix) in a smear?

Leptotrix refers to opportunistic pathogens. This is a gram (+) anaerobic bacillus that inhabits ponds. Under the microscope, the leptotrix has the appearance of a hair — a long and thin wand.

It is believed that leptotriksy are not sexually transmitted, and their presence in the smear is not a reason for experiencing, if no other abnormalities are detected.

A feature of these bacteria is that they often accompany other pathogens - Trichomonas and Chlamydia. In this case, the doctor will prescribe medication for the treatment of several pathogens.

If leptotriksy identified during pregnancy planning, treatment is mandatory. Revealed that they can cause miscarriages, cause inflammatory processes in the membranes, infect the child.

Norms smear on flora

Norms smear on flora

smear analysis

Having received the results of analyzes, sometimes it is very difficult to understand the numbers and letters written by the doctor. In fact, everything is not so difficult. In order to understand whether you have gynecological diseases, you need to know the normal values ​​when deciphering the smear for flora analysis. They are few.

In smear tests in an adult woman, the normal values ​​are as follows:

  1. Flat epithelium (pl. Ep) - normally its number should be within fifteen cells in sight. If the number is greater, then this is evidence of inflammatory diseases. If less - a sign of hormonal disorders.
  2. Leukocytes (L) - the presence of these cells is allowed, as they help to fight the infection. The normal number of leukocytes in the vagina and urethra is not more than ten, and in the cervix - up to thirty.
  3. Dederleyn sticks - a healthy woman should have a lot of them. A small amount of lactobacilli speaks of impaired vaginal microflora.
  4. Phlegm - must be present, but only in small quantities.

The presence in the results of the analysis of fungi of the genus Candida, small sticks, gram (-) cocci, trichomonads, gonococci and other microorganisms, indicates the presence of the disease and requires more in-depth research and treatment assignment.

Table of decoding standards smear in women (flora)

Indicator Values ​​of normal values
Vagina (V) Cervical canal (C) Urethra (U)
White blood cells 0-10 0-30 0-5
Epithelium 5-10 5-10 5-10
Slime Moderately Moderately
Gonococci (Gn) not not not
Trichomonas not not not
Key cells not not not
Candida (yeast) not not not
Microflora A large number of Gram + sticks (Dederlein sticks) not not

Vaginal Purity

Often the doctor writes out a referral for a smear for cleanliness. With this method, the "degree of purity" of the vagina is detected. There are four of them. Only the first and second degrees are normal, the third and fourth degrees indicate the presence of diseases of the genital tract.

Grade 1 is an ideal variant, which, unfortunately, occurs infrequently. Leukocytes in a smear do not exceed the permissible limits. Flora is represented by a large number of Dederleyn sticks, mucus and squamous epithelium cells in a small amount.

Grade 2 - The most common variant of the norm, in which white blood cells are within the normal range, mucus and epithelium in moderation. A small amount of cocci or Candida fungi appears, a large number of lactobacilli.

Grade 3 - a large amount of mucus and epithelial cells is detected in a smear. There are few beneficial lactobacilli; instead, an increased number of Candida fungi and pathogenic microbes is noted.

4 degree - there are so many leukocytes that the doctor describes them with the term "completely". A very large number of pathogens. Dederleyn sticks missing. Mucus and epithelium in large quantities.

The first and second degrees do not require treatment, and the last two degrees indicate an inflammatory process caused by a particular pathogen, and require urgent therapy.

Smear on flora during pregnancy

For the entire period of pregnancy is done three times, during screening: at the time of registration, on the 30th week and before the expected date of birth.

The analysis is carried out in order to prevent diseases of the sexual sphere, which can complicate childbirth or cause disease in the newborn.

The smear indicators of a pregnant woman differ from the smears of a non-pregnant in the quantitative composition of the flora.

In the period of carrying a baby, the number of Dederleyn sticks increases tenfold. It is necessary to maintain an acidic environment, which has a deadly effect on pathogenic microbes, protecting the fetus from infection.

The number of epithelial cells is also increasing. During pregnancy, they accumulate reserves of glycogen, which is used as a food by lactobacilli.

The rest is no difference. The emergence of pathogenic microorganisms also requires treatment, only therapies are chosen more benign (candles, tampons, ointments).

2017-08-01 05:09:59
Hello, are there any deviations in the smear? Leukocytes v 3-5 in p / sp, cc 2-4 in c / sp; epithelium v ​​4-6, cc 3-5; another microflora-sticks; threads pseudomycelium - detected, everything else is not detected
2017-08-07 04:30:18
Hello, Natalia. Judging by the analysis, there is dysbacteriosis of the vaginal mucosa. Contact your gynecologist to clarify the treatment plan.
2017-09-18 06:37:05
Hello, are there any deviations leykots 3-6 flora fell + cocci?
2017-10-31 05:47:45
Hello. Help decode analyzes, please. Cervical canal: Leukocytes 30-40 Epithelium - moderate. No mucus Candida Flora mixed small amount of Vagina: Leukocytes 60-65 Epithelium moderate quantity Slime large amount of Candida no Flora mixed small quantity
Igor Radevich
2017-11-08 05:11:35
Hello, Polina! You have signs of inflammation of the reproductive system (elevated white blood cells). In order to determine the causative agent of inflammation, I recommend to take PCR femoflor.
Julia Sharipova
2017-11-14 06:10:46
Hello, please help me understand the results of the analysis of secretions, it is written: leukocyte-units, epithelium-4-5, sticks cocci-stick. I do not understand anything
Igor Radevich
2017-11-15 07:01:16
Hello Yulia! The result of the smear is absolutely normal. Sticks and cocci are permissible opportunistic pathogens. I wish you health
2017-11-16 05:58:03
Hello! Help me please! I am 64 years old. The smear analysis of the epithelium 10-15, leukocytes, 8-11, mflora - cocci unit, mucus value. , di not detected (I do not know what it is) I'm worried about a burning sensation in the perineum, pain in the lower abdomen. Do I have an atrophic colpitis? Thank you very much for the answer!
Igor Radevich
2017-11-17 05:14:03
Hello! Your analysis is normal. Atrophic colpitis cannot be excluded from this analysis. Need examination by a gynecologist. I wish you health.
larisa bolshunova
2017-11-20 05:28:26
Hello! Help with decoding. Smear analysis: superficial epithelium c / c-sparse, v-moderate, u-moderate; leukocytes c / k -3-4 in p / zr, v-10-11 in p / zr, u-1-2 in p / zr; red blood cells everywhere 0-0 in p / zr; flora, single cocci everywhere; the rest is not detected. Thank.
2017-11-28 10:27:29
Hello Larissa! Your analysis is within the normal range.
Lesya t
2017-11-29 06:21:28
Good evening, help deal with the analysis. Cervical canal: Leukocytes 10-12 Epithelium - moderate. Slime is not much diplococci no microflora is absent Vagina: Leukocytes 18-20 Epithelium moderate quantity Slime not much diplococci no microflora is missing
2017-11-30 06:16:23
Good evening.You can consult such an analysis: Leukocyte 17-26 in par. Epithel 12-18; Kokova flora; Slime ++
2017-11-30 06:18:58
Help to deal with the analysis, please. Pregnant 7 weeks Leukocytes 45-50 10-12 Epithelium: a single 2-3 Small stick single Cocci ++ Mycelium filament yeast
Igor Radevich
2017-12-01 05:06:31
Hello Marina! The analysis increased leukocyte count. This indicates an inflammatory process of the genitals. Identified fungal flora (inflammation may be caused to them). In pregnancy, thrush (fungus) often occurs. The remaining indicators are valid. You should contact your gynecologist for an appointment. I wish you health
Igor Radevich
2017-12-01 05:06:47
Hello! The analysis increased the content of leukocytes (this is a sign of the inflammatory process). Coccal form is conditional pathogens. To identify the causative agent of inflammation, you must pass the PCR femoflor. I wish you health
Igor Radevich
2017-12-01 05:06:54
Hello, Lesya! In the vagina increased levels of leukocytes (inflammatory process). Additionally, you need to take a PCR femoflor and visit a gynecologist.
Igor Radevich
2017-12-06 05:17:33
Hello Marina! You have an inflammatory process (leukocytes are elevated), probably caused by fungal flora. It is necessary to contact an appointment with a gynecologist.
2017-12-13 10:41:36
Please help me with the analyzes. The girl was examined because she was worried about thrush.
Alexandra Lopina
2017-12-15 07:58:52
Hello. Help with decoding, please. no flora leukocytes 12-15 epithelium 3-5 trichomonads not detected
Irina vinner
2017-12-15 08:02:02
Hello! Tell me, what does "dorji three crosses" and "banal flora" mean? So the gynecologist told me, prescribed metrogil plus, will help?
doctor Daria
2017-12-26 12:28:58
Your tests are normal. Leukocytes are slightly overestimated, which is possibly associated with the menstrual cycle (the number of leukocytes may increase before menstruation).
doctor Daria
2017-12-26 12:29:21
Good afternoon, Irina Vinner. You have candidiasis with a high content of the fungus (thrush), as well as conditionally pathogenic flora (it is normal, but may cause inflammation). Metrogyl plus will certainly help, it has both antifungal component and antibacterial in its composition.
doctor Daria
2017-12-26 12:30:08
Hello, Ludmila. The analysis has an increase in leukocytes (both in the cervix and in the vagina), and also yeast (thrush) and key cells (these are epithelial cells of the vagina plastered with bacteria. This is a laboratory sign, which is essentially vaginal dysbacteriosis.) which caused thrush and dysbacteriosis, against the background of the same thrush.
2017-12-26 12:53:27
Good day! Please help me understand the results of the analysis.
2018-01-09 08:59:30
Hello, help deal with analyzes
2018-01-09 09:05:37
Hello! Help please, smear passed, leukocytes cervix 8-10, vagina 10-12. Microflora: sticks. epithelium of the cervix: 6-7, vagina 5-6. phlegm +, vagina +, candida ganderelli trihomanada gonnokoki - not detected, PCR ureplazma ganderell - not detected .. I am concerned: sticks what is it ?? and numbers leukocyte epithelium ?? Thank you in advance!
Irbek Guev
2018-01-09 09:06:45
good afternoon. help to understand the results of the analysis. leukocytes in b.elit.cl.vb c.flora mixed +++
2018-01-10 06:47:27
2018-01-18 07:36:53
Good day. Tell me. Did a smear a week ago — the inflammatory process showed (3-4 days as insignificant discharge went). She made 6 pieces of a Terzhinan candle, repeated smear showed Microorganisms (urethra) - there is. Cells of the squamous epithelium (vagina) C / c - there are Leukocytes of c / c <10. Ratio L to E L <E Leukocytes (urethra) <10 Laktobats, etc. microorganism. - dominated by other microorganisms Everything else - no or not detected. Question: What is the degree of purity and is a smear suitable for surgical intervention in genetics?
2018-01-29 07:44:26
Hello, I gave a smear on pregnancy, what does this mean?
Maya Chemezova
2018-02-02 08:14:00
They found some key cells in me, prescribed metrogil plus. I didn’t understand what it is, the doctor says that it’s not like a genital infection, but it’s not enough,
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:14:28
Hello Inna. Analysis without deviations. A small number of white blood cells, within the normal range, and the flora, consisting of doderleyn sticks - i.e. lactobacillus. You have nothing to worry about.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:15:34
Good afternoon, Eugene. You have 3 degree of purity - this is an inflammatory process, so any gynecological manipulations are contraindicated.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:16:32
Hello, Irbek Guev. in the analysis, the increase of indicators in all parameters - flora, leukocytes and epithelial cells. This indicates an inflammatory process, so you should contact your doctor for the appointment of treatment.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:16:45
Hello. Sarayya You have an excellent analysis - there is no pathogenic microflora (gardenella, ureaplasma, gonococcus, thrush and Trichomonas). Numbers of white blood cells and squamous epithelium are within the normal range for smear. Sticks are beneficial lactobacilli that must colonize the vagina by 90–95%, performing a protective function.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:17:19
Good day, Elena. You have an increased amount of squamous epithelium in the analysis, which indicates the presence of inflammation. and also the gardenines - microorganisms that cause bacterial vaginosis. Refer to the results of the analysis to the gynecologist for the purpose of treatment of vaginosis.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:18:46
Good day, Elena. In the smear analysis, there is a guardinella - a bacterium that causes bacterial vaginosis. Also, a large number of squamous epithelium in the vagina indicates the presence of an inflammatory process. I recommend that you contact your gynecologist with the results of the analysis for the purpose of treatment.
doctor Daria
2018-02-02 08:18:49
Hello, Anastasia. The number of leukocytes in a smear is normal, a large number of squamous epithelium is determined, which is possibly due to the presence of an inflammatory process. As for the flora, it is very difficult to make out the handwriting, it is better to check the results with your doctor.
2018-02-05 12:09:48
Good day. Help to decipher.
Anna Kholod
2018-02-13 09:07:34
Hello, help deal with the analyzes General clinical examination of the detachable vagina The epithelium of the vagina is moderate in p / zr number Leukocytes of the vagina 0-1 in p / z Red blood cells vagina not found in p / zr Microflora vagina mixed flora in p / zr large number of cells Cells vagina not found in n / sp not found Mycelium and Candida spores vagina not found in n / sp not found Vagina mucus not found in n / sp Trichomonas vaginalis vagina not found not found No diplococcci vagina not found not found O Shchelklinicheskie study of the cervical discharge Epithelium of the cervix small in p / sp number Leukocytes of the cervix 15-20 in p / sp Red blood cells of the cervix not detected in p / sp The microflora of the cervix is ​​not in p / sp sp not detected Mycelium and spores Candida uterine cervix not detected in n / sp not detected Mucus cervix large in n / zr number of Trichomonas vaginalis cervix not detected not detected Diplococci cervix uteri not detected General clinical study of the urethral discharge Epithel urethra small in p / zr number Leukocytes urethra 0-1 in p / zp Erythrocytes urethra not detected in p / zp Microflora urethra mixed flora in p / zr moderate amount Verethra mucus is not detected in p / zr Trichomonas vaginalis urethra not detected not detected diplococci urethra not detected not detected
2018-02-19 07:48:53
Hello, help understand the analysis
2018-02-22 07:35:26
Hello, I ask you, please help decipher the analysis. Just a guard, a constant recurrent discomfort, a doctor is not very good, or the treatments are not right ..

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