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Analysis of smears in women: decoding the results and norms of indicators
It is necessary to visit the gynecologist every six months. This will keep women's health under control and in time to identify the disease. The simplest and most accessible method of research in gynecology is the taking of a gynecological smear.
Deciphering such an analysis will allow the doctor to see changes in the female genital system that are not visible during external examination.
- Taking a smear is absolutely painless and takes only a couple of minutes. Health hazards she does not bear, can be carried out even in pregnant women.
- Когда нужно сдавать мазок на флору? 1 When do I need to take a smear for flora?
- Расшифровка результатов мазков 2 Deciphering smear results
- Нормы мазка на флору 3 norms smear on flora
- Таблица расшифровки нормы мазка у женщин (флора) 3.1 Table of decoding norms smear in women (flora)
- Степени чистоты влагалища 4 degrees of purity of the vagina
- Мазок на флору при беременности 5 Smear on flora during pregnancy
When do I need to take a smear for flora?
Deciphering smear analysis for flora can tell the gynecologist about the presence of genital infections, inflammation, hormonal disorders in a woman's body.
A smear on flora (gynecological smear) is necessarily carried out if a woman makes the following complaints:
- Highlight unusual color of the genital tract.
- Pain in the abdomen at rest or during sexual contact.
- Itching and burning sensation in the genital area.
- The appearance of an unpleasant odor in the discharge.
Also, smears are taken during preventive examinations.
Interpreting smear results
With the help of letters, the doctor marks the place where the smear is taken. Latin letters are commonly used: V, C, U.
Swabs are taken from three points: the vagina (V-vagina), the cervix (C-cervix) and the urethral opening (U-uretra).
In deciphering a smear on the flora of women, you can find the strange word "cocci." Cocci are microorganisms that have a rounded shape. This is a group of conditionally pathogenic organisms that are constantly present in the body.
However, they must be in a certain amount. As soon as their number exceeds the allowable, cocci can cause unpleasant symptoms due to inflammation. In gynecology, this condition is called nonspecific colpitis.
Cocci is divided into two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative. Such a division has an important diagnostic value in determining the pathogenicity of a microorganism that has settled in the vagina.
Coccal flora in a smear, gr. + Or gr. - cocci
The division of microbes into gram-negative and gram-positive appeared in microbiology after a Danish scientist by the name of Gram revealed the ability of microorganisms to be painted in different colors, depending on the degree of their resistance to antibiotics.
When coloring drugs used a special dye of dark blue or purple. The scientist noticed that some microbes are colored blue and others pink, although the dye is the same.
After careful research, it was found that pink or crimson-colored microbes are less susceptible to antibiotics. To come their death, you should make a lot of effort.
Microorganisms that are well stained in blue, called gram-positive (gram +), and those that remained pink - gram-negative (gram).
Pale staining and resistance to antibacterial drugs was simply explained: these bacteria had a thicker coat. The structure of the wall has a more complex structure than that of gram (+) cocci, which means that it is much more difficult for a dye or antibiotic to penetrate into its layers.
For the gynecologist is important such a separation. Detection of gram (+) cocci in a smear is allowed. Such microorganisms include staphylococcus and streptococcus, which may be present in the vagina of a healthy woman.
Gram (-) cocci can cause disease. The most common representatives of this group in gynecology are gonococci, pathogens of gonorrhea.
What are Dederlein sticks?
Mandatory element of women's health is the vaginal rod flora. Dederleyn sticks - a generic name that combines large and fixed Gram-positive sticks, providing the normal microflora of the female genital organs.
They can be found under the name of lactobacilli or gram-positive bacilli.
Dederleyn sticks play an important role in the life of a woman:
- They contribute to the maintenance of the acidic environment in the vagina, which ensures the careful selection of spermatozoa during fertilization.
- As you know, sperm do not long live in an acidic environment. Therefore, inferior, weakened male cells are the first to die, which only allows the strongest and strongest to reach the goal.
- Inhibit the development of pathogenic microorganisms through the activation of macrophages.
- Allocate hydrogen peroxide - helps "maintain purity" in the vagina.
In a smear of a healthy woman, Dederlein sticks should be plentiful. Reducing their number suggests possible problems with women's health.
What is a leptotrix (Leptotrix) in a smear?
Leptotrix refers to opportunistic pathogens. This is a gram (+) anaerobic bacillus that inhabits ponds. Under the microscope, the leptotrix has the appearance of a hair — a long and thin wand.
It is believed that leptotriksy are not sexually transmitted, and their presence in the smear is not a reason for experiencing, if no other abnormalities are detected.
A feature of these bacteria is that they often accompany other pathogens - Trichomonas and Chlamydia. In this case, the doctor will prescribe medication for the treatment of several pathogens.
If leptotriksy identified during pregnancy planning, treatment is mandatory. Revealed that they can cause miscarriages, cause inflammatory processes in the membranes, infect the child.
Norms smear on flora
Having received the results of analyzes, sometimes it is very difficult to understand the numbers and letters written by the doctor. In fact, everything is not so difficult. In order to understand whether you have gynecological diseases, you need to know the normal values when deciphering the smear for flora analysis. They are few.
In smear tests in an adult woman, the normal values are as follows:
- Flat epithelium (pl. Ep) - normally its number should be within fifteen cells in sight. If the number is greater, then this is evidence of inflammatory diseases. If less - a sign of hormonal disorders.
- Leukocytes (L) - the presence of these cells is allowed, as they help to fight the infection. The normal number of leukocytes in the vagina and urethra is not more than ten, and in the cervix - up to thirty.
- Dederleyn sticks - a healthy woman should have a lot of them. A small amount of lactobacilli speaks of impaired vaginal microflora.
- Phlegm - must be present, but only in small quantities.
The presence in the results of the analysis of fungi of the genus Candida, small sticks, gram (-) cocci, trichomonads, gonococci and other microorganisms, indicates the presence of the disease and requires more in-depth research and treatment assignment.
Table of decoding standards smear in women (flora)
|Indicator||Values of normal values|
|Vagina (V)||Cervical canal (C)||Urethra (U)|
|White blood cells||0-10||0-30||0-5|
|Microflora||A large number of Gram + sticks (Dederlein sticks)||not||not|
Often the doctor writes out a referral for a smear for cleanliness. With this method, the "degree of purity" of the vagina is detected. There are four of them. Only the first and second degrees are normal, the third and fourth degrees indicate the presence of diseases of the genital tract.
Grade 1 is an ideal variant, which, unfortunately, occurs infrequently. Leukocytes in a smear do not exceed the permissible limits. Flora is represented by a large number of Dederleyn sticks, mucus and squamous epithelium cells in a small amount.
Grade 2 - The most common variant of the norm, in which white blood cells are within the normal range, mucus and epithelium in moderation. A small amount of cocci or Candida fungi appears, a large number of lactobacilli.
Grade 3 - a large amount of mucus and epithelial cells is detected in a smear. There are few beneficial lactobacilli; instead, an increased number of Candida fungi and pathogenic microbes is noted.
4 degree - there are so many leukocytes that the doctor describes them with the term "completely". A very large number of pathogens. Dederleyn sticks missing. Mucus and epithelium in large quantities.
The first and second degrees do not require treatment, and the last two degrees indicate an inflammatory process caused by a particular pathogen, and require urgent therapy.
Smear on flora during pregnancy
For the entire period of pregnancy is done three times, during screening: at the time of registration, on the 30th week and before the expected date of birth.
The analysis is carried out in order to prevent diseases of the sexual sphere, which can complicate childbirth or cause disease in the newborn.
The smear indicators of a pregnant woman differ from the smears of a non-pregnant in the quantitative composition of the flora.
In the period of carrying a baby, the number of Dederleyn sticks increases tenfold. It is necessary to maintain an acidic environment, which has a deadly effect on pathogenic microbes, protecting the fetus from infection.
The number of epithelial cells is also increasing. During pregnancy, they accumulate reserves of glycogen, which is used as a food by lactobacilli.
The rest is no difference. The emergence of pathogenic microorganisms also requires treatment, only therapies are chosen more benign (candles, tampons, ointments).