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Allergic rhinitis in a child and an adult - symptoms and treatment

The problem of allergic rhinitis is an adult and a child can face at any age. The worsening environmental and living conditions, the abundance of airborne allergens lead to the fact that younger patients are increasingly common at the reception at the children's ENT doctor.

Consider what happens allergic rhinitis and what treatments are effective for children and adults.

Content

Allergic Rhinitis - What is it?

Manifestations of "hay fever" in children and adults, photos

Manifestations of "hay fever" in children and adults, photos

Allergic rhinitis is a perverse reaction of the nasal mucosa to the effects of various external stimuli. The second name of the disease is “hay fever”.

It used to be believed that the cause of the disease is hay and grass. It is now known that there are much more air allergens, and among them hay is almost the last.

The disease is based on an inflammatory reaction that develops in response to exposure to certain allergens. As a rule, the disease manifests itself in childhood, although there are cases of the sudden onset of symptoms of allergic rhinitis in adults.

The reaction to the causative allergen develops rapidly. After 1-2 minutes after contact with the patient, the patient begins to lay the nose, watery eyes, etc.

In this case, the interaction between the person and the stimulating substance should be interrupted as soon as possible. A prolonged and persistent aggravation of rhinitis in a child can lead to the development of chronic inflammatory processes in the nose.

Causes

Causes of allergic rhinitis, photo

The cause of the problem are various airborne allergens. Before describing what they are, we will explain - for the development of allergic rhinitis, the child or adult must be sensitized (sensitive) to this allergen.

This means that in one child contact, for example, with poplar fluff, will cause a severe attack of allergy, while in another, nothing will happen.

With allergies, there is a malfunction of the immune system, which perceives certain substances as foreign and tries to cope with them through the reaction of allergic inflammation. Why this happens, no one really knows. Among the contributing factors are prematurity, poor nutrition, heredity, region of residence, etc.

The direct cause of the launch of allergic rhinitis are various substances, often air distribution:

  • grass and plant pollen (ambrosia, quinoa, wormwood, alder, etc.);
  • feces, wool, pet epidermis;
  • household chemicals;
  • cosmetics;
  • insects;
  • fungi;
  • house dust that contains mites;
  • plants and the substances they emit;

In addition to airborne allergens, food products (honey, nuts, seafood, etc.) can also cause rhinitis. In these cases, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis in a child are combined with gastrointestinal disorders and skin rashes.

Important! Separately allocate the physical causes of allergies. So, the nasal mucosa can react to cold, heat and other climatic conditions (cold allergy).

Forms of allergic rhinitis in children

There is a division into seasonal (pollinosis) and year-round (permanent) forms of this disease.

Seasonal allergic rhinitis is associated with exposure to pollen from various plants. It repeats every year at the same time during the flowering period of this plant. Urban children are more sensitive to tree pollen, while rural babies are more sensitive to pollen from grass and weeds.

The severity of an allergic reaction depends on the type of irritant, the time of its impact on the body and the individual sensitivity of the person.

Year-round form appears by constant contact with a causal factor, for example, dust containing mites. Active allergens are pets, fungi, mold, medications and fish feed.

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis, photo

Photo of symptoms of allergic rhinitis in a child

Photo of symptoms of allergic rhinitis in a child

The manifestations and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in a child and an adult are very similar. In most cases, the patient is concerned:

  • difficulty in nasal breathing due to swelling of the nose;
  • transparent discharge, which, upon the addition of a bacterial infection, can change its color and consistency;
  • bouts of sneezing;
  • sense of smell is lost;
  • tearing and eye irritation;
  • photophobia and sensitivity to sunlight;
  • ear congestion and hearing loss;
  • against the background of the constantly stuffy nose joins headache, fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite.

Some parents may underestimate rhinitis in a child and are very vain. An allergic form of the disease often causes inflammation of the middle ear and the development of sinusitis (inflammation of the paranasal sinuses).

Manifestation of the disease in adults

The prolonged absence of proper nasal breathing seriously affects the normal physical and intellectual development of the child.

Diagnosis of the disease

For diagnosis, the doctor carefully collects anamnesis and prescribes a number of diagnostic studies. Indirectly, the presence of an allergic reaction may indicate an increase in eosinophils in the general analysis of blood. However, this indicator can be increased in other diseases (worms invasion, etc.).

What special studies can confirm the presence of allergic rhinitis:

1. Skin tests. A series of scratches is performed with a special scarifier on the forearm, and then the suspected allergen is applied to them. The result is evaluated by the presence or absence of a skin reaction. This method is not used in the period of exacerbation of allergies, as well as in young children.

Disadvantages: high probability of false results and no more than 7-10 allergens can be investigated at a time.

. 2. Determination of eosinophils in a smear from the nasal cavity . The essence of the method: during the period of exacerbation of rhinitis, a smear is taken from the patient's nose, if the inflammation is of an allergic nature, then a large number of eosinophils are found in the smear.

Disadvantages: apply only at the time of exacerbation, often gives false results.

3. Definition of specific Jg-E. Determine its level in the blood, it is produced in response to the action of a specific allergen. This method has almost no contraindications.

Do not use in children under 6 months due to a weak immune response at this age.

4. Immunoblotting. This is a highly sensitive method that has no contraindications and gives a reliable result.
For analysis, take the patient's blood, which is applied to a special paper. On it separate proteins are applied in separate lines.

If there are antigens in a patient's blood to some protein, then a dark line appears in a certain zone. There are 4 standard panels of allergens in children with allergic rhinitis, they usually prescribe inhalation (house dust mites, birch pollen, alder, cat hair, dogs, etc.) or pediatric (grass pollen, egg whites, mites, etc.), which include major allergens of these classes.

Treatment of allergic rhinitis in a child and adult

Treatment of allergic rhinitis

Treatment of allergic rhinitis in children and adults depends on its form and the severity of the allergic reaction. The main components of effective treatment of allergic rhinitis are:

  1. Limiting or eliminating contact with the causative allergen.
  2. Antiallergic drugs.
  3. SIT - specific immunotherapy.
  4. Physiotherapy (acupuncture, speleotherapy).

If necessary, apply a surgical intervention, if you want to improve the aeration of the nasal cavity or clean the purulent focus. This happens when allergies are combined with a curved nasal septum or chronic sinusitis.

Treatment in children

Let us consider in more detail the drugs that are used for treatment in childhood:

1. Antihistamines. Used in the form of drops (fenistil), in children after 10-12 years old tablets (Zodak and others).

2. Nose drops for allergic rhinitis are divided into several groups:

  • Vasoconstrictor (Nazol Bebi, etc.). Use one-time, in situations where you need to quickly remove the swelling. Do not apply for longer than 5-7 days in children with a tendency to nosebleeds.
  • Antihistamines (Vibrocil). Well suited for treating seasonal forms. Act quickly and gently, apply for 2-3 weeks.
  • Hormonal (Fliksonaze, Nasoneks). The main tool for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Begin to work 5-6 days after the start of treatment, have a cumulative effect, do not show a systemic effect. Good clean allergic edema and apply within 1-2 months.
  • Moisturizers (Salin, Aqualore). Wash off the allergen from the surface of the nasal mucosa and partially remove the swelling. Safe and can be used in children from the first days of life.

3. In severe cases, use systemic hormones.

Specific immunotherapy (SIT)

Specific immunotherapy A bit about SIT: This method is used when the causative allergen is accurately established.

A small amount of a stimulating substance is administered subcutaneously to the patient in steps and thus the body is taught to cope with the pathological reaction itself. Conduct courses in remission.

If a child does not have a polyallergy or an allergen, this method is not used.

Prevention of allergic rhinitis

Preventive measures include a set of measures to eliminate or limit contact with the allergen:

  1. Do not go outside in the period of flowering plants dangerous for the baby or change the geographical area at this time.
  2. Conduct wet cleaning.
  3. Give relatives pets.
  4. Apply special humidifiers and vacuum cleaners with HEPA-filters.
  5. After the street, take a shower and change clothes.
  6. Regularly rinse the nose with mineral water without gas.

If an allergic reaction was started, then getting rid of it is very difficult. The patient can take measures so that allergic rhinitis does not cause him discomfort and does not change his usual way of life.

This can be done with reasonable restrictions, as well as medications and procedures that the doctor will select.

Interesting

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