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Allergic dermatitis in adults and children: causes, symptoms and treatment

Among the acute inflammatory skin diseases, allergic dermatitis is among the leading pathologies. According to the classification, it is one of the varieties of contact dermatitis.

In the WHO registry, allergic dermatitis by code ICD-10 is registered as class L23.0-L23.9 (with ten qualifying diagnoses, according to provocative factors).

Develops against the background of increased sensitivity of the organism to a certain allergen, or to a group of similar in structure and chemical composition of substances. Various pathological processes on the skin manifest themselves as a response of the body to an optional (conditioned) stimulus.

Content

The causes and mechanism of development

The appearance of skin lesions occurs according to the delayed type of formation of pathological reactions, with prolonged contact of a person with a certain stimulus.

The development of allergies occurs with repeated contact with the external antigen, especially in those people who are predisposed to allergies and have inherited mutant gene (autosomal recessive inheritance).

The initial acquaintance of the body with a certain substance begins with increased sensitivity to it, and only after a while, the direct contact of the antigen with the skin causes the development of inflammatory processes on the skin, as a consequence of a specific reaction.

The substances (haptens) that cause this reaction have a very low molecular weight, which ensures their easy penetration into the skin.

Inside the body, they bind to the family of globulins (plasma proteins), increase in size and turn into full-blown IgE antibodies, responsible for the development of an allergic reaction.

From how quickly the allergen will contact the globulins, the manifestation of specific reactions depends. This type of disease, with the defeat of the skin develops not earlier than 1-2 weeks after the first contacts with heptens (see photo).

For example, with a professional allergy, the effect of an allergen on the skin can last for years.

Provocative factors in the development of skin allergic dermatitis can be, both internal and external stimuli:

  • medicamentous preparations, especially antibacterial ointments;
  • berries and citrus fruits;
  • means of household chemical goods;
  • cosmetic and perfumery components;
  • varnish-and-paint materials and polymers on artificial and natural basis;
  • various chemical compounds and metals.

According to the morphological code of diseases, the disease has up to a dozen varieties.

The most famous manifestations are:

Реакция аллергического контактного дерматита, вследствие контакта с внешним раздражителем – бытовым, пищевым, укуса насекомых. 1) The reaction of allergic contact dermatitis, due to contact with an external stimulus - domestic, food, insect bite.

Различных форм токсидермии, провоцирующей специфическую реакцию организма в ответ на внедрение антигенов в структуру дыхательных путей, в систему ЖКТ посредством подкожных и внутривенных инъекций медикаментозных препаратов, приема провоцирующей пищи, вследствие различных внешних раздражителей. 2) Various forms of toxemia, which provokes a specific reaction of the body in response to the introduction of antigens into the structure of the respiratory tract, into the GI system through subcutaneous and intravenous injections of medications, the intake of provoking food, due to various external stimuli.

It is characterized by a rapid manifestation in the form of extensive rashes of a large area of ​​the skin.

Диатеза (атопическая форма) – проявляется аллергическим дерматитом у детей, взрослых и у женщин в положении. 3) Diathesis (atopic form) - manifests allergic dermatitis in children, adults and women in the situation. It is a consequence of a combination of respiratory processes and acute inflammatory dermatosis.

Appears rash and skin irritation. The development of the disease stops immediately, if the provoking factor is eliminated.

Эпидермального токсического некролиза, отличающегося локализованной формой поражения в виде местного воспаления и токсического поражения всего организма. 4) Epidermal toxic necrolysis, characterized by a localized form of lesions in the form of local inflammation and toxic damage to the whole organism. It refers to the section of skin toxidermic damage due to the action of sulfonamide drugs.

Can be manifested on any part of the body. Affected areas of the dermis exfoliate from the underlying layers and die.

Symptoms of allergic dermatitis in adults, photo

Symptoms of allergic dermatitis in adults are manifested depending on the form of the disease.

При контактной форме болезни симптоматика выражена: 1) With the contact form of the disease, the symptomatology is expressed:

  • bright red spots of rashes in various parts of the skin that have contact with the allergen;
  • the subsequent replacement of spots with bubbles filled with liquid;
  • constantly itchy process of focal lesions;
  • spread of rash to healthy tissue, with prolonged influence of the stimulus, accompanied by articular aches, headaches and increased temperature.
allergic dermatitis in adults, photo 1

allergic dermatitis in adults, photo 1

manifestations of the disease, photo 2

manifestations of the disease, photo 2

Признаки токсикодермии сопровождаются: 2) Signs of toxicodermia are accompanied by:

  • general weakness with possible loss of consciousness;
  • cold sweat and swelling;
  • joint pain and pain in the lumbar region;
  • bloody vesicles on separate areas of the skin;
  • defeat of the brain and spinal cord;
  • a violation of the functions of the lungs and the liver.

Симптоматика диатеза (атопическая форма) проявляется: 3) Symptomatic of diathesis (atopic form) is manifested:

  • severe itching rash in various parts of the body;
  • insomnia and nervous disorders on the background of continuous itching;
  • inhibition or strong excitement;
  • attachment of staphylococcal, or streptococcal infection in the outbreaks;
  • the formation of purulent foci, edema, cracks and dry yellowish crusts in place of bursting combed vesicles.
crust formation on the site of scratching, photo 3

crust formation on the site of scratching, photo 3

Against the background of diathesis, it is possible to develop bronchial asthma, hives, conjunctivitis or cheilitis. The disease proceeds in chronic form with seasonal exacerbations (in winter) and remissions (in the summer).

Exacerbation of the disease in adults causes adrenal insufficiency, which causes:

  1. decreased gastric secretion;
  2. vegetative disorders and decreased blood pressure;
  3. decreased blood glucose;
  4. feeling of constant fatigue.

Признаки эпидермального токсического некролиза проявляются в очень короткий промежуток времени после контакта с антигенным возбудителем. 4) Signs of epidermal toxic necrolysis appear in a very short period of time after contact with an antigenic agent. Within one, three days the patient may die.

stains merge forming a continuous cover Symptoms are manifested:

  • a sudden rise in temperature to very high rates, for no apparent reason;
  • skin rashes on the trunk, arms and legs;
  • multiple edematous red spots, gradually merging into large foci;
  • education on the foci of blisters of various sizes (the size of the palm of the diseased) covering their skin becomes thin, flabby, easily torn by mechanical action;
  • involving the internal and genital organs in the mucosal lesion process.

Allergic dermatitis in children

Allergic dermatitis in children

manifestations in children, photo 1

Allergic dermatitis in children develops due to the failure of immune mechanisms that are not able to withstand a different antigenic type, creating prerequisites for the development of various dermatological diseases.

symptoms of allergic dermatitis in children, photo 2

photo 2

The frequent cause of development of pathological reactions in the child is caused by:

  • ingestion of breast milk or artificial mixtures;
  • first lure or vaccination;
  • contact with the surrounding reality (objects, dust, moisture, cold, etc.);
  • medicinal preparations;

To provoke the disease can rub the baby's skin with diapers of inappropriate size, irritating the skin with synthetic underwear and wet diapers.

All this can cause specific reactions in the inguinal zone, on the buttocks of the child, on the external genitals, in the armpits and ulnar folds, in the form of small rashes, red foci of inflammation and the main symptoms of allergic dermatitis, itching.

Pathologies of toxic-allergic nature develop in children with a gradual increase and intensification of symptoms.

: There are :

  • red patchy rash all over the body;
  • development of vesicles and skin peeling;
  • fusion of bubble formations, their opening and formation of a wetting surface;
  • itching and burning at the rash;
  • ulceration in the oral cavity.

The general condition of the child worsens, dyspnea, coordination disorder, drowsiness and fever.

At any manifestations of similar symptoms it is necessary to consult a dermatologist and an allergist - the disease is fraught with the development of various complicated processes.

Complications of allergic dermatitis

Running, untreated allergic dermatitis can cause various complications in adults and children, manifesting themselves as:

  • development of purulent skin lesions;
  • irreversible skin changes caused by cutaneous atrophy;
  • fungal infections;
  • the defeat of the respiratory tract in the form of asthmatic bronchitis;
  • development of ENT diseases;
  • helminthic invasions, furunculosis;
  • memory loss.

Diagnostic Methods

The detection of the disease is due to the manifestation of the clinical picture. Elucidation of predisposing factors of the preceding disease. In certain cases, an analysis is made for the determination of IgE antibodies in the blood.

Detection of the allergen of the aggravating disease is carried out by the method of tests and samples:

Нанесение на предплечье небольших доз различных антител. 1) Application on the forearm of small doses of various antibodies. If the skin of a specific allergen is replaced by a reddening or blister, then the reaction is positive.

Тесты аппликационные – аппликации специальными бумажными липкими пластинками могут определить с десяток провокационных аллергенов. 2) Appliqué tests - applications with special paper sticky plates can identify a dozen provocative allergens.

The applicator is attached to the back of the patient for two days. When stripping, a redness or a small blister appears on the site of a certain antigen, with a sharp reaction. The changes on the skin pass without a trace immediately after the removal of the plate.

The precise definition of an allergen helps in the selection of an effective agent for the treatment of allergic dermatitis.

Treatment of allergic dermatitis in adults and children

Treatment of allergic dermatitis in children General therapy for the treatment of allergic dermatitis and their symptoms in adults and children includes several items:

  • the identification and exclusion of a provoking factor;
  • selection of hypoallergenic diet;
  • the appointment of sedatives, enterosorbents, vitamin therapy and probiotics;
  • use of antibiotics, systemic corticosteroid drugs and antihistamines ( especially in the case of children ).

Drug therapy

Drug therapy

Особенное внимание уделяется глюкокортикостероидным препаратам в виде системного лечения – приема внутрь и поверхностной обработки аллергических дерматитов мазью на основе препаратов «Деймовейт», « Гидрокортизон » или «Элоком». 1) Special attention is paid to glucocorticosteroid preparations in the form of systemic treatment - oral and surface treatment of allergic dermatitis with ointment on the basis of the preparations "Deimoveit", " Hydrocortisone " or "Elokom".

Для профилактики зуда и отечности, устранение покраснений, большой эффективностью обладают антигистаминные препараты – инъекции и таблетки «Лоратидин», «Супрастин» и «Клемастин». 2) To prevent itching and swelling, elimination of redness, antihistamines - injections and tablets "Loratidin", "Suprastin" and "Clemastine", are of great effectiveness.

Применение лекарственных увлажнителей обусловлено уплотнением кожных покровов, вызванных болезнью. 3) The use of medicinal moisturizers is due to the thickening of the skin caused by the disease. They are based on thermal waters and animal wax. The most effective are "Lipikar", "Atoderm", "Topicrem" and "Trikzera"

Лечение аллергических дерматитов кремами «Актовегин», «Солкосерил» или «Циновит» решает проблему шелушения кожи (освобождения ее от чешуек), воспаления и раздражения, способствует быстрому заживлению мокнущих ран и устранению зуда. 4) Treatment of allergic dermatitis with creams "Actovegin", "Solkoseril" or "Cynovit" solves the problem of skin peeling (releasing it from scales), inflammation and irritation, promotes rapid healing of wetting wounds and the elimination of itching.

Быстрому заживлению сухих ран способствуют паста или мазь – «Бепантен», «Адвантан», «Пентанол». 5) Fast healing of dry wounds is promoted by paste or ointment - "Bepanten", "Advantan", "Pentanol".

Preventive measures

Children susceptible to various forms of allergic dermatitis should be on dispensary registration in a polyclinic under the constant supervision of a doctor.

Parents should ensure proper care for the skin of the child with the use of special cosmetics, preventing her from drying out, cracking or intertrigo. Observe a strict diet, eliminating the effects of allergens.

Children and adults, with any treatment, medication should be prescribed only by a specialist doctor.

It is inadmissible to prescribe more than five medicines for the treatment of any one disease. Completely eliminate attempts at self-treatment.

Allergic dermatitis ICD-10

Detailed information on the finding of the disease in the ICD Classifier 10:

Class XII - Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

(L20-L30) Dermatitis and eczema

Code (L23) Allergic contact dermatitis

  • (L23.0) Allergic contact dermatitis due to metals
  • (L23.1) Allergic contact dermatitis due to sticky substances
  • (L23.2) Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics
  • (L23.3) Allergic contact dermatitis due to medications in contact with skin
  • (L23.4) Allergic contact dermatitis due to dyes
  • (L23.5) Allergic contact dermatitis due to other chemicals
  • (L23.6) Allergic contact dermatitis due to food products when they come into contact with the skin
  • (L23.7) Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants other than food
  • (L23.8) Allergic contact dermatitis due to other substances
  • (L23.9) Allergic contact dermatitis, cause not specified
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