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Adnexitis: causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease

There are many diseases of the female genital organs, which have seasonality, can lead to painful complications or even infertility. One of these diseases is adnexitis.

It is widespread, and has a tendency to exacerbate in the spring - autumn time, at the very time when the exacerbation of most colds and inflammatory diseases occurs.

The value of adnexitis is very high, because this disease can change the hormones of the female body, affects the course of the menstrual cycle. What is this disease, and how to cope with it?


Adnexitis - what is it?

Adnexitis is an inflammatory disease of the uterine appendages, that is, the ovaries and fallopian tubes. The ovaries and tubes are paired organs, so adnexitis can affect either of these four organs, or all at once. Therefore, the second name of adnexitis is salpingo-oophoritis (photo below).

The term translated from the "medical language" and means - "inflammation of the tubes and ovaries." The end of the "-it" in the names of the diagnosis indicates the inflammatory process.

Therefore, it is very illiterate to write "adnexitis inflammation," since it means "inflammation of the name of an inflammatory disease," and it is completely illiterate to say "uterine adnexitis."

Adnexitis is an inflammatory disease of the uterine appendages.

Of course, the inflammatory process that occurs in the tubes and ovaries, has its differences, its clinical picture and different treatment outcomes. First of all, what is adnexitis (salpingo-oophoritis)?


Like any disease, salpingo-oophoritis can have several varieties. His place in the international classification of ICD - 10 in the section "diseases of the urinogenital system", then - "inflammatory diseases of the female pelvic organs."

Adnexitis (ICD 10) code N 70.

The types of salpingoophoritis are as follows:

  • Acute adnexitis, or having a chronic course;
  • Unilateral or bilateral adnexitis;
  • Serous or purulent process;
  • Predominant lesion of the tubes (salpingitis) or ovary (oophoritis).

Separately, it is possible to single out the classification according to the pathological condition (pyosalpinx) - purulent fusion of the fallopian tube, classification by pathogens (chlamydia, diphtheria, tuberculosis, gonococcal) lesions.

Therefore, inflammation can be caused by both nonspecific (coccal flora) and specific microorganisms, some of which are listed above.

In addition, unilateral adnexitis can be both right-and left-handed. This allows the gynecologist already, by the presence of complaints, to make a preliminary diagnosis.

Causes of andexitis

In the event that the process is chronic, then the most frequent causes of its occurrence is seasonal hypothermia. The cause of adnexitis, first identified, may be in the following conditions:

  • Frequent catarrhal diseases, reduced immunity;
  • The accession of a secondary infection (bacterial vaginosis, the appearance of thrush);
  • Angina, or exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis;
  • Conducting medical - diagnostic manipulations, for example, curettage of the uterus;
  • Abortion;
  • Installing an intrauterine contraceptive in the presence of an inflammatory process;
  • Sex without any protection;
  • Overwork, lack of sleep, chronic stress.

You can certainly find many other reasons, but the most important are the above. They provoke this disease in more than 88% of all newly detected cases.

The first signs of the disease

First signs of adnexitis

Symptoms of andexitis, photo

Everyone knows: the earlier the treatment of any disease is started, the higher the chances for its complete cure. The situation with salpingoophoritis is exactly the same: its early signs revealed in time will allow only an outpatient treatment in the conditions of antenatal clinics, and avoid hospitalization in the hospital.

The first signs of adnexitis are as follows (we are talking about acute adnexitis):

  1. Stomach ache;
  2. Temperature rise;
  3. Bloating, nausea or vomiting.

Since the tubes and ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity, next to the intestinal loops and abdominal organs, their inflammation can simulate an attack of acute appendicitis, or any other catastrophe in the abdominal cavity: acute obstruction, or perforation of a stomach ulcer.

Therefore, at the first manifestation of signs you need to call an emergency doctor.

Andexitis symptoms

Above, we very briefly described the signs of adnexitis. Let us examine in more detail the nature of pain in acute and chronic process. Pain with adnexitis are:

  • Strong or moderate, right or left, but almost never in the center;
  • The pain radiates (gives) to the tail bone, sacrum, or lower back;
  • When the process is chronized, the symptoms of adnexitis become “blurred” and the pain also becomes moderate.

In addition to pain, fever and abdominal distention, unpleasant discharge from the genital tract, serous, blood-like, or even purulent character can disturb.

For the chronic process is characterized by increased pain both before menstruation and after it. It is also possible pain during intercourse. Chronic adnexitis, the symptoms in women that are lubricated and implicit, often learn about the disease during a failed pregnancy.

This is due to the development of adhesions in the pipes . Adhesions are the outcome of inflammation, expressed in the formation of scar tissue.


Diagnosis of adnexitis In the event that we face an acute process - then the diagnosis is not particularly difficult. The diagnosis of adnexitis, which has a protracted and chronic nature, is much more difficult. For correct diagnosis, the following methods and studies are used:

  • Routine examination on the gynecological chair, taking smears;
  • Their bacteriological crops and research;
  • Taking general blood and urine tests;
  • Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs;
  • Laparoscopy and laparoscopic biopsy.

Finally, sometimes the diagnosis is confirmed when conducting research methods such as hysterosalpingography. In the case when a complete or partial obstruction of the fallopian tubes is found, we can speak of adhesions, or of chronic salpingitis.

Treatment of acute and chronic andexitis

The acute treatment of adnexitis involves hospitalization in the gynecological department, powerful antibiotic therapy, or even surgery, possibly for life reasons.

Treatment of chronic adnexitis is a complex and complex task. It includes the use of antibacterial drugs, removal of pathogenic flora, concomitant treatment of candidiasis and intestinal dysbiosis, raising immunity, rehabilitation at the gynecologist - endocrinologist to restore the cycle.

Drugs that are used for therapy, can be both tablets, and intended for local use. Treatment of adnexitis with suppositories (vaginal suppositories) has become widespread, and has high efficacy.


Prevention of adnexitis is a prerequisite for the health of the future baby; every young girl should remember this. To this end, the following measures should be observed and implemented:

  • It is necessary to monitor your immunity, to prevent the appearance in the body of foci of infection (sore throats, carious teeth);
  • It is necessary to avoid hypothermia, and not to strive to “flaunt” mini-skirts surrounded by snowdrifts;
  • It is tedious to avoid unprotected sex, and to remember elementary hygienic requirements: during washing it is always necessary first to flush the genitals with your hand, and you need to guide your hand from front to back, and never vice versa.

After adnexitis

After acute adnexitis, a woman should be doubly careful. For 2-3 months after discharge, it is recommended to refrain from intimacy, until the cycle is normalized.

Chronic adnexitis, the treatment of which is incomplete, has every chance of causing infertility.

Suffering acute adnexitis is sometimes easier to get pregnant than the woman who had a chronic process for many years, which was accompanied by the gradual appearance of adhesions in the tubes.

It is tubal obstruction that prevents the egg from entering the uterus for fertilization - this is also a pronounced symptom of adnexitis in women.

In the event that a woman from an early age monitors her health and fulfills all the prescriptions of doctors, is regularly examined in the antenatal clinic, avoids promiscuous sex - then salpingoophoritis, both acute and chronic, does not threaten her.


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